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Unit 4 Assessment Answers

Unit 4 objectives:

  • Understanding grapheme-phoneme relationships.
  • Exploring the orthographic conventions governing English spelling.
  • Distinguishing the origins of English words and their impact on spelling.

Importance of the Unit in Understanding Language and Literacy Instruction:

  • Gaining a deeper understanding of the English spelling system aids in effective literacy instruction.
  • Understanding the origins and structure of English words enhances the ability to teach reading and spelling.
  • This unit lays a solid foundation for subsequent units, linking phonological awareness to spelling and reading proficiency.

Unit 4 Assessment Answers

Based on the grapheme representing /sh/, which word is probably from French?machine
Which of the following words is most probably from the Anglo-Saxon layer of English?playground
Because of arbitrary and historical conventions governing English orthography, some letters can never be used to end a word. Which word can be explained by that principle?have
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word flight, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?4
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word badge, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?3
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word timing, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?5
If you were teaching the soft c for reading and spelling, which words could be used an examples?circus, cycle, center
Which of the following two-syllable words contains an open syllable followed by a closed syllable?secret
Which of the following two-syllable words contains a vowel team syllable followed by a syllable with a vowel-r pattern?power
If a third-grade student writes, “My new puppy is very plafull,” what does his misspelling of the word playful most likely indicate?He needs to learn to think about the morphemes, or meaningful parts, in longer words.
Which word might be found in a lesson on adverb (adverbial) suffixes?happily
What is the best explanation for the spelling of smiled during a lesson on rules for adding suffixes to base words?Words ending in silent e drop the e when a vowel suffix is added.
What is the best definition for oral reading fluency?reading with accuracy, expression, and sufficient speed to support comprehension
What is the most critical step in the process of teaching students to recognize printed words automatically, with little effort?Ensure that students can apply their knowledge of phonics patterns to unknown words.
At what point in a student’s reading development do you no longer need to spend any instructional time on systematic, explicit instruction in phonology, phonics, and syllabification?When students can rapidly and accurately read a wide variety of multisyllabic words both in isolation and in a text.

Key Concepts

Definitions and Examples of Critical Terms

  • Grapheme: A grapheme is the smallest unit in a writing system. In English, a grapheme could be a single letter or a group of letters like ‘th’ or ‘sh’.
    • Example: The word “ship” contains four graphemes: ‘s’, ‘h’, ‘i’, and ‘p’.
  • Phoneme: A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word that can change its meaning.
    • Example: The words “bat” and “pat” differ by one phoneme: /b/ and /p/, respectively.
  • Orthography: Orthography refers to the conventional spelling system of a language.
    • Example: In English orthography, the phoneme /f/ can be represented by the graphemes ‘f’, ‘ph’, or ‘gh’ (as in ‘cough’).

Explanation of Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping and its Significance

Phoneme-grapheme mapping is a fundamental concept in literacy instruction, bridging the gap between spoken and written language. It involves identifying the phonemes (sounds) in a word and mapping them to the corresponding graphemes (letters or letter combinations).

This process is crucial for developing reading and spelling skills, as it helps learners understand the systematic and predictable relationships between sounds and letters in English.

For instance, in the word “chip”, the phonemes are /ch/, /i/, and /p/, corresponding to the graphemes ‘ch’, ‘i’, and ‘p’. Understanding this relationship enables students to decode unfamiliar words and build their spelling skills.

The significance of phoneme-grapheme mapping extends to improving reading fluency and comprehension. It establishes a solid foundation for learners to explore more complex aspects of literacy, like morphology and syntax, with a grounded understanding of the language’s phonological and orthographic structures.

Through mastering phoneme-grapheme mapping, students are better equipped to tackle the challenges of English spelling and reading, contributing to their overall literacy development.

Study Tips

Strategies for Understanding and Remembering the Material

  • Active Participation: Engage actively with the material and practice phoneme-grapheme mapping with diverse examples.
  • Flashcards: Create flashcards for critical terms and their definitions.
  • Discussion Groups: Join or form study groups to discuss and analyze the material.

Resources for Further Reading and Practice

  • Online Platforms: Websites like Lexia Learning provide relevant resources and practice exercises.
  • Reading Material: Books like “Unlocking Literacy: Effective Decoding & Spelling Instruction” by Marcia K. Henry.
  • Educational Apps: Apps like GraphoGame can help in understanding phoneme-grapheme relationships.

Combining active engagement with additional resources can significantly enhance understanding and retention of the material.

Other LETRS Assessment Answers

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