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b. The Three Cueing Systems model omits or obscures the role of phonology.
What is one important distinction between the Four-Part Processing Model for Word Recognition and the Three Cueing Systems model? a. The Four-Part Processing Model emphasizes visual processes. b. The Three Cueing Systems model omits or obscures the role of phonology. c. The Three Cueing Systems model emphasizes the role of phonology. d. The Three Cueing Systems model omits semantic processing.
d. both foundational reading skills and oral language development
Many students at risk for reading problems enter school without exposure to the academic language used in books or preschool experience. These students are most likely to make progress closing the reading and language gap if their classroom instruction emphasizes which of the following? a. oral language comprehension and reading aloud b. attending to context, including semantic and syntactic cues c. matching students with interesting reading material d. both foundational reading skills and oral language development
a. early alphabetic
A beginning first-grade student is able to segment and pronounce the first sound in a spoken word. He tries to guess at words by looking at the first letter only. When he writes words, he spells a few sounds phonetically, but not all the sounds. According to Ehri, this student is most likely in which phase of word-reading development? a. early alphabetic b. later alphabetic c. prealphabetic d. consolidated alphabetic
A kindergarten teacher is having students listen to three spoken words and identify the two words that end with the same sound. The teacher is focusing on which language system? a. morphology b. phonology c. orthography d. semantics
d. Determine if the students need remediation in word recognition, language comprehension, or both.
Considering the Simple View of Reading, what would be the BEST course of action for a third-grade teacher with concerns about several students who have not achieved fluency? a. Observe whether students are able to work on several subskills at once. b. Verify that students have been engaged in independent reading at home for 20 minutes every day. c. Increase demand on students to improve their passage reading rate. d. Determine if the students need remediation in word recognition, language comprehension, or both.
a. primary difficulties with phonology, decoding, and word recognition
In any first-grade classroom in a typical school in the United States, approximately one-third of students are likely to score in the “basic” or “below basic” range. The largest proportion of those students is likely to show which characteristics? a. primary difficulties with phonology, decoding, and word recognition b. primary difficulties with phonology only c. primary difficulties with automatic word recognition only d. primary difficulties with language comprehension only
b. Reading problems can be treated as easily in third grade as in first grade.
Which of the following statements is FALSE with regard to an effective implementation of a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS)? a. It is possible for 95 percent of kindergarten students to meet benchmark by the end of the year. b. Reading problems can be treated as easily in third grade as in first grade. c. Progress-monitoring assessments should be brief, curriculum based, and economical. d. Students can learn to read even if there is little help available at home.
b. both regular and irregular words
. One important goal of beginning reading instruction is the development of a sight vocabulary that enables the student to recognize a word instantly, without having to decode it. What types of words should make up a student’s sight word vocabulary? a. phonetically irregular words b. both regular and irregular words c. phonetically regular words d. high-frequency words
b. They can predict which students are at long-term risk for reading failure.
What is the value of data provided by screening measures? a. They can demonstrate the reliability of test results on repeated administrations. b. They can predict which students are at long-term risk for reading failure. c. They can determine which students need a referral to special education. d. They can contribute to teacher evaluations.
b. It is morphophonemic.
In comparison to other alphabetic languages, what feature of the English writing system makes English more difficult for young students to read and spell? a. It is syllabic. b. It is morphophonemic. c. It is a shallow orthography. d. It is phonetically transparent.
A second-grade teacher, in preparation for reading a new text about honeybees, asks the students to brainstorm all the meanings they know for the word comb. The teacher is primarily focusing on which language system? a. phonology b. semantics c. orthography d. morphology
c. Skilled readers perceive all letters when they read.
Experiments that use modern eye-movement technology to investigate what the eye “sees” when a proficient reader scans and comprehends a text have made what important discovery? a. Good readers skim a text, perceiving just a few letters. b. Good readers are dependent on context to identify words. c. Skilled readers perceive all letters when they read. d. The perceptual span of a good reader is triple that of a poor reader.
Questions To Learn
Which statement best describes the relationship between reading comprehension and word decoding in a beginning reader’s development?
Accurate, fast word recognition is necessary for development of reading fluency and text comprehension.
Near the close of the day, a kindergarten teacher guides the students in conversation about the day’s activities. She writes down what is said on large chart paper, then reads it to the class. This activity would aid their literacy development primarily by promoting which skill?
What is the most important implication of the Four-Part Processiong Model for Word Recognition?
Reading depends on constructing pathways between the phonological, orthographic, and meaning processors.
After results of a winter screening, six second-graders scored in the “somewhat at risk” range. What is the next step the teacher team should take?
Analyze the screening results and gather additional diagnostic assessment data.
How is the word sn-ow divided?
onset – rime
How many spoken syllables are there in frightening?
How many spoken syllables are there in cleaned?
What is the main reason that the ability to identify, segment, blend, and manipulate individual phonemes in spoken words is important for reading an alphabetic writing system?
Each letter in a word represents an individual phoneme
Students with relative weaknesses in basic phonemic awareness are most likely to make progress if the teacher provides which practice?
asks students to look into a mirror while they describe the way that target phonemes are formed in the mouth
Which student is demonstrating the most advanced level of phonemic awareness?
the student substituting a sound in a given word and saying the new word
A student spells skin as sgin. What type of phonological error did she make?
substitution of a voiced for an unvoiced consonant
Having students listen to a word, say it, and then mentally reverse the sounds in the word is an instructional activity that would be most appropriate for which students?
those who have mastered basic phonemic awareness
How can phonics instruction be organized to be most effective?
around a preplanned progression through a logical scope and sequence
Which word group might a teacher include in a lesson focused on identification of consonant blends?
plan, squirm, train
Which word group might a teacher include in a lesson focused on reviewing consonant digraphs?
phone, throne, shown
In the early alphabetic phase of word-reading development, students know some letter-sound correspondences and most letter names. A student at this level is most likely to progress with what type of instruction?
blending 2-3 phoneme-grapheme correspondences within simple, one-syllable words
Many screening measures can be considered diagnostic since they provide extremely detailed data about a students skills in particular literacy domains.
true or false
If a student needs work on phonics and decoding, what kind of informal diagnostic assessment would provide the most useful information on how to help this student with these skills?
a. a spelling inventory to show which features of English spelling the student has mastered b. a word-reading survey to show which sound-symbol correspondences the student knows and which ones still need practice c. a vocabulary test to show student understanding of word meanings in context d. a test of reading comprehension to show how well the student can answer questions about a grade-level text
Which of the following is not an area of inquiry to include in a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of a potential reading disorder?
a. spelling b. handwriting c. single-word decoding d. social interactions
Which of these literacy skills have students typically mastered by the end of third grade? Select all that apply.
a. advanced phonemic awareness b. Greek-derived morphemes c. inflectional morphology d. fluent recognition of word families (rime patterns)
Cody is in first grade. He almost never raises his hand to participate in class discussions. When called on, he replies very briefly. He tends to use vague words like stuff and rarely uses full sentences. During decoding exercises, he reads words accurately and easily recognizes common patterns; he is a good speller. When he reads stories aloud, he reads fairly accurately but in an expressionless monotone. Which assessment would be most likely to yield valuable information about Cody?
a. administering a phonics survey b. reading a story to him and having him orally retell it c. examining samples of his writing d. administering a timed oral reading fluency assessment
Large-scale studies have show that about half of first-graders who struggle with reading will catch up by third grade without any special interventions.
What is the primary purpose of progress-monitoring assessments?
They help teachers determine if a particular instructional approach is working to bring a student closer to a target level of reading skill.
Which characteristics describe typical outcome assessments? Select all that apply.
a. designed to measure passage comprehension c. useful for comparing individuals to norms for a given age or grade level
Which is a common limitation of screening measures?
The imprecision of the measures results in false positives- children identified as lacking sufficient reading skills even though they will later develop adequate reading skills.
For an assessment to be useful in a school setting, which three psychometric criteria are the most important?
reliable, valid, efficient
A student with dyslexia may also be intellectually gifted
Students who are slow at word reading and text reading, but can segment and blend sounds orally, typically have better outcomes than students with phonological processing deficits.
Dyslexic is a term often applied to a large subset of poor readers. These readers’ difficulties with accurate, fluent word recognition originate primarily with deficits in which of the following?
Which of the following can pose challenges for readers who are English Learners (ELs)? Select all that apply.
a. Compared to native English speakers, ELs have fewer English words in their phonological lexicons b. ELs may encounter passages that do not align well with their culture and background knowledge. d. When they read, ELs must perform two tasks at once: deciphering words and translating content between English and their first language.
About 10-15 percent of poor readers can decode and read individual words quickly and well and can spell accurately-yet struggle to comprehend the meanings of passages. This profile is typical of students with which coexisting disorder?
autism and autism spectrum disorders
What skill is most important for a student just learning to read?
Why is it important to build students’ fast and accurate word recognition and spelling?
so that students don’t have to laboriously sound out words
Which scenario describes a child in the prealphabetic phase?
a child who responds “Meow!” when asked, ” What is the first sound in cat?”
Which scenario describes a child in the consolidated alphabetic phase?
a child who sees the word inactive and figures out that it means “not active”
The primary are of difficulty for students who fall behind in their reading development is
underdeveloped foundational reading skills
A significant shortcoming of the Three-Cueing Systems model, compared to the Four-Part Processing Model, is that it obscures the role of ______ in word recognition.
Which best describes the activity of the reading brain in proficient readers, compared to beginning readers?
It is more automatic
Which of these does the language-comprehension component of the Reading Rope emphasize?
the importance of vocabulary development and of understanding language structures
The word-recognition component of the Reading Rope includes which subskills? Select all that apply
a. decoding c. phonological awareness d. sight recognition
Good readers do not require a large storehouse of sight words in their memory if they have highly developed phonographic skills.
During reading, our eyes process each word letter by letter.
How many letters does the eye normally take in at each fixation point before moving on to the fixation point?
7-9 to the right 3-4 to the left
The four-part processing model helps us understand __________
how multiple parts of the brain must work together in order for word recognition to occur
The are known as the visual word form are or “brain’s letterbox” is located in the _______ lobe and is essential to the ________ processor.
What are some symptoms of children who have trouble with phonological processing?
a. slow to blend sounds in words together c. difficulty remembering sounds for letters d. trouble spelling speech sounds for words
Which statement best describes the relative importance of oral reading fluency and verbal comprehension as factors in reading comprehension?
As children get older, verbal comprehension becomes more important than oral reading fluency
Which o these is an example of morphology
We know the words unique, uniform, united, and universe all contain the root uni, meaning “one”
Which is a characteristic of discourse in spoken language?
it does not use paragraphs and tends to be disorganized
How does the language system of pragmatics help us to understand why written language is mores structured than spoken language?
Social context and nonverbal gestures help the listener understand spoken language, so there is less need for it to be highly structured
What adds to the challenge of becoming literate? Select all that apply
a. All meaning reside sin the written words alone; there is no additional physical context or gestures, facial expressions, etc., to support meaning b. reading and writing require learning new forms of language, such as changes to sentence structure, discourse, and presentation of vocabulary and semantics
According to the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress, what percentage of fourth-grade students have score “basic” or “below basic” in reading?
64% nationally, with African-American and Hispanic students making up a disproportionate amount
Reading comprehension is not a single construct. Rather, the ability to understand what you read relies on multiple components. Once readers become more skilled in word recognition, which of the following components increase in their importance?
background knowledge and vocabulary
Which statement most accurately describes how the human brain has evolved to process spoken and written language?
our brains have evolved to process spoken language much more easily than alphabetic writing
What characteristic makes English a “deep” alphabetic orthography?
Its spelling system represents meaningful parts (morphemes) as well as sounds
According to the Simple View of Reading model, which is more important to reading comprehension – word recognition or language comprehension?
Both are equally important
How Many Questions Are On The LETRS Unit 1 Assessment?
Did you know that Unit 1 of the LETRS Assessment contains 10 questions? That’s right – 10 questions divided into sections, each focusing on different aspects of literacy development.
- LETRS Online Platform
LETRS Assessment Answers
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