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LETRS Unit 1 Session 1 Test Answers
study of relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used as a descriptor for code-based instruction
conscious awareness of the individual speech sounds (consonants and vowels) in spoken syllables and the ability to consciously manipulate those sounds
unit of pronunciation that is organized around a vowel; it may or may not have a consonant after the vowel
writing system for representing language
English orthography is morphophonemic, which means that it is a deep alphabetic writing system organized by both “sound-symbol” correspondences and morphology
smallest meaningful unit of language; it may be a word or a part of a word; it may be a single sound (plural /s/), one syllable (suffix -ful), or multiple syllables (prefix inter-)
word in one language that shares a common ancestor and common meanings with a word in another language. Many Spanish words, such as problema or digrama are cognates that are built around the same Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes, or roots that English words also employ.
ability to think about and reflect on the structure of language itself; the invention of the alphabet was an achievement in metalinguistic awareness.
ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences
LETRS Unit 1 Session 2 Test Answers
b. It does not use paragraphs and tends to be disorganized.
Which is a characteristic of discourse in spoken language? a. It generally uses complete, well-formed sentences. b. It does not use paragraphs and tends to be disorganized. c. It may use unusual or topic-specific vocabulary. d. Its sounds are coarticulated in words.
a. As children get older, verbal comprehension becomes more important than oral reading fluency.
Which statement best describes the relative importance of oral reading fluency and verbal comprehension as factors in reading comprehension? a. As children get older, verbal comprehension becomes more important than oral reading fluency. b. Oral reading fluency and verbal comprehension are equally important throughout childhood and adolescence. c. As children get older, verbal comprehension matters less, and oral reading fluency becomes more important. d. Although oral reading fluency and verbal comprehension are both important, a child with problems in one domain can usually use the other domain to compensate.
b. Social context and nonverbal gestures help the listener understand spoken language, so there is less need for it to be highly structured.
How does the language system of pragmatics help us to understand why written language is more structured than spoken language? a. Written language is highly structured because we expect certain types of writing, such as stories, to follow established organizational conventions. b. Social context and nonverbal gestures help the listener understand spoken language, so there is less need for it to be highly structured. c. We must process written language in a highly structured way—reading letters that represent specific sounds and decoding them by reading from left to right. d. Spoken language is less structured because we tend to use sentences that are incomplete, run-ons, or otherwise ungrammatical.
d. We know the words unique, uniform, united, and universe all contain the root uni, meaning “one.”
Which of these is an example of morphology? a. We use polite phrases like “excuse me” and “thank you” when addressing someone of higher social status. b. We recognize that the nonsense word “hufflelumps” could be a real word in English, but “ngapkez” could not. c. We tend to structure paragraphs with a main idea supported by details. d. We know the words unique, uniform, united, and universe all contain the root uni, meaning “one.”
a. All meaning resides in the written words alone; there is no additional physical context or gestures, facial expressions, etc., to support meaning. b. Reading and writing require learning new forms of language, such as changes to sentence structure, discourse, and presentation of vocabulary and semantics.
What adds to the challenge of becoming literate? Select all that apply. a. All meaning resides in the written words alone; there is no additional physical context or gestures, facial expressions, etc., to support meaning. b. Reading and writing require learning new forms of language, such as changes to sentence structure, discourse, and presentation of vocabulary and semantics. c. Written sentences are often less grammatical than spoken ones. d. Nothing; children already have been exposed to literature from an early age.
What is written or spoken language that is more stylistically formal than spoken conversational language – language that is most often used in academic discourse and text?
a separate neural system for each language
What does the brain establish if a student is learning two languages simultaneously, as in bilingual households?
T/F Listening comprehension may exceed reading comprehension, but the reverse is not true. One cannot understand by reading what one cannot understand by listening.
a. brillig d. martabastical
Which of the following nonsense words COULD be an English word based on phonology? Select all that apply. a. brillig b. ngangmt c. pkumlekp d. martabastical e. tslenuts
T/F “There are no set rules for how sounds are represented in written English beyond the correlation of one sound per symbol in the alphabet.”
a. civilian, civilization, civilized, civic d. malware, malignant, malicious, malfeasance
Which of the following groups of words are built around a similar morpheme? Select all that apply. a. civilian, civilization, civilized, civic b. uninterested, unit, uniform, unimportant c. above, abstract, abuse, about d. malware, malignant, malicious, malfeasance
T/F “Semantics helps us understand words’ meanings based on the context in which they occur.”
b. Maria picked green and red peppers.
Which sentence has the correct English syntax? a. Maria green peppers and red picked. b. Maria picked green and red peppers.
a. essay structure b. paragraph structure d. story structure
Which of the following is an example of discourse? Select all that apply. a. essay structure b. paragraph structure c. sentence structure d. story structure
a. You address a stranger as “ma’am,” but not your best friend. c. You never use profanity at work but sometimes use it at home. d. If you accidentally jostle a stranger, you say “excuse me.”
Which of the following is an example of pragmatics? Select all that apply. a. You address a stranger as “ma’am,” but not your best friend. b. When you tell a story, you try to build up excitement and suspense. c. You never use profanity at work but sometimes use it at home. d. If you accidentally jostle a stranger, you say “excuse me.”
LETRS Unit 1 Session 3 Test Answers
Accomplished readers skip over words when they read.
In the Simple View of Reading, you need to engage both word recognition and language comprehension for reading comprehension.
Our brains read _________________ to the left.
7 – 9 letters
The mental process used to store words for immediate and effortless retrieval.
When taking a spelling test, we engage the
The name for the mental dictionary in the phonological processing system.
Used to match upper and lower case letters
Identifies the sounds in words
“She found 3 bats in the trees.” This helps you determine if she found a bird or a piece of sporting equipment.
The study of phonology and orthography
LETRS Unit 1 Session 4 Test Answers
A significant shortcoming of the Three Cueing Systems model, compared to the Four-Part Processing Model, is that it obscures the role of ________________ in word recognition.
Which best describes the activity of the reading brain in proficient readers, compared to beginning readers?
It is more automatic.
Which of these does the language-comprehension component of the Reading Rope emphasize?
the importance of vocabulary development and of understanding language structures
The word-recognition component of the Reading Rope includes which subskills? Select all that apply.
Decoding, phonological awareness, sight recognition.
Good readers do not require a large storehouse of sight words in their memory if they have highly developed phonographic skills.
LETRS Unit 1 Session 5 Test Answers
What skill is most important for a student just learning to read?
A child sees the word savanna and sounds it out accurately. Which of Ehri’s phases is she in?
later alphabetic stage
A child who responds, “Bow-wow!” when asked, “What is the first sound in dog?” is in the:
A child who sees the word inactive, and figures out that it means “not active,” is in the:
consolidated alphabetic stage.
A child who comes across the new word house, but reads it as horse, is in the:
early alphabetic stage.
LETRS Unit 1 Session 6 Test Answers
Distinguishing the cause of a reading problem is not always ________. A working ________ about the causes can be made, but the most productive course of action for any as risk student is to __________ them.
possible, hypothesis, teach
Among all English-speaking poor readers, at least _____ to _____ percent have trouble with accurate and fluent ______ ______ that often originates in weaknesses with _________ processing.
70, 80, word recognition, phonological
Word-recognition difficulties often co-occur with ________ and ________ problems.
Students who have primary difficulty with ________ ________ also have obvious trouble learning sound-symbol correspondences, sounding out words, and ________. The term _______. applies to this group.
word recognition, spelling, dyslexia
You can be _______ and dyslexic.
Dyslexia is a specific learning ________ that is neurological in origin.
Dyslexic difficulties typically result from a deficit in the _________ component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective ________ ________.
phonological, classroom instruction
Secondary consequences may include problems in reading ________ and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of ________ and background knowledge.
Up to 25 percent who are poor at word recognition are slow at word reading and text reading but can ________ and _______ sounds ________.
segment, blend, orally
These students will ________ ________ words even after seeing them several times. They tend so spell ________ but not accurately.
sound out, phonetically
For this subgroup, the nature of their relative weakness is still debated by reading scientists. Some argue that the problem is primarily one of timings and ________ speed. Others propose that there is a specific deficit within the _______ _______ system that affects the storage and recall of exact letter sequences.
processing, orthographic processing
This processing speed/orthographic subgroup generally has better outcomes than students with measurable impairments of _________ ________.
10-15 percent of all poor readers appear to decode and read individual words better than they can _______ the meanings of passages. These poor readers are distinguished from dyslexic students because they can read words ________ and quickly and they can _______. Students on the _______ spectrum also fit into this reading profile.
comprehend, accurately, spell, autism
English Learners with reading problems often fit the profile of better word reading than ________ ________.
implicating a core problem in the phonological system of oral language
Processing speed/orthographic processing deficit
affects speed and accuracy of printed word recognition (also called naming speed problem or fluency problem)
often coincides with the first two types of problems, but specifically found in students with social-linguistic disabilities (e.g. autism), vocabulary weaknesses, generalized language learning disorders, and leaning difficulties that affect abstract reasoning and logical thinking;
ELs may seem to fit the comprehension deficit profile because they have not mastered English _______ and _______.
A student with a prominent and specific weakness in either phonological or orthographic (naming-speed) processing, is said to have a ________ deficit in word ________.
A student with a combination of phonological and naming-speed deficits, is said to have a ________ deficit. These students are more common that those with a ______ deficit and are also the most ________ to remediate.
double, single, difficult
Possible indicators of specific language comprehension difficulties
inattention to teacher talk, low verbal output, low scores on tests of vocabulary that do not require reading, lack of improvement in comprehension if a reading selection is read to the individual, inability to tell the difference between main ideas and supporting details during listening or reading; confusion about the meanings and uses of pronouns, prepositions, and space/time concepts and human relationships; literal interpretations of abstract language
EL’s word recognition will be slowed and limited simply because they have fewer English words in their ________ _________.
EL’s ________ _______ is often slow because they are doing double the work — they are deciphering English and mentally translating back and forth between English and their ________ ________ in order to make sense of the passage.
oral reading, first language
Studies have shown that student’s brain activation patterns can be “normalized” if remediation for word-level reading impairments is _________, ________, and ________ ________.
early, intensive, effectively designed
Difficulty with the speed and accuracy of printed word recognition; also sometimes called a naming-speed problem or fluency problem
Orthographic Processing Deficit
Vocabulary weaknesses, generalized language learning disorders, and learning difficulties that affect abstract reasoning and logical thinking
A core problem in the processing system that works with the sounds of oral language
Dyslexia is mainly a reversal issue that involves seeing letters and/or numbers backward.
One main characteristic of dyslexia is difficulty with word recognition.
Dyslexic students may achieve higher scores on comprehension tests that do not involve reading.
The term “dyslexia” should not be used in IEP documents.
Dyslexic students who are said to have a “double deficit” have weaknesses in which two areas?
phonological processing and naming-speed processing
A student with dyslexia may also be intellectually gifted.
Students who are slow at word reading and text reading, but can segment and blend sounds orally, typically have better outcomes than students with phonological processing deficits.
Dyslexic is a term often applied to a large subset of poor readers. These readers’ difficulties with accurate, fluent word recognition originate primarily with deficits in which of the following?
Which of the following can pose challenges for readers who are English Learners (ELs)? Select all that apply.
Compared to native English speakers, ELs have fewer English words in their phonological lexicons. ELs may encounter passages that do not align well with their culture and background knowledge. When they read, ELs must perform two tasks at once: deciphering words and translating content between English and their first language.
About 10-15 percent of poor readers can decode and read individual words quickly and well and can spell accurately—yet struggle to comprehend the meanings of passages. This profile is typical of students with which coexisting disorder?
autism and autism spectrum disorders
LETRS Unit 1 Session 7 Test Answers
Once children are ___________ – which happens very early – they do not catch up unless intervention is intensive, timely, and well informed.
__________ is a type of assessment that has the following characteristics; all students once per year, tests have time limits, silent and independent reading, passage comprehension, scores are reported as percentiles or NCE and states may develop their own or use National.
__________ is a type of assessment that has the following characteristics; predict fluent reading by 3rd grade, word-reading abilities are strong predictors of passage reading, selected students should receive more in-depth surveys of strengths and weaknesses, screening should be brief.
_________ is a type of assessment with the following characteristics; formative assessments, brief & measure progress towards a goal, forms allow for frequent administration, given 1-3 weeks and determine effectiveness of instruction.
__________ is a type of assessment with the following characteristics; given only to students at risk, longer than screening test, detailed information about student mastery and inform instruction and aspects of treatment.
_________ – ____________ tests refers to standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test-takers in relation to each other.
Norm – referenced
_______ _________ are used to predict who is most likely to pass the high-stakes outcome tests given at the end of each grade. Examples are; letter-naming, phoneme segmentation, grapheme-phoneme correspondence, word reading lists, nonsense word reading, spelling and phonetic spelling accuracy, oral passage reading fluency (mid 1st) and Maze passage reading (3rd and beyond).
_______ _______ with questions is a good early indicator of language comprehension.
Valid measure actually measures what was intended is called….
Valid measures that corresponds well to other known measures is called…
Predicts with accuracy how students are likely to perform on an accountability measure is called…
LETRS Unit 1 Session 8 Test Answers
Which of these literacy skills have students typically mastered by the end of third grade? Select all that apply. a. advanced phonemic awareness b. Greek-derived morphemes c. inflectional morphology d. fluent recognition of word families (rime patterns)
a. advanced phonemic awareness c. inflectional morphology d. fluent recognition of word families (rime patterns)
Which of the following is not an area of inquiry to include in a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of a potential reading disorder? a. spelling b. handwriting c. single-word decoding d. social interactions
d. social interactions
T/F Many screening measures can be considered diagnostic since they provide extremely detailed data about a student’s skills in particular literacy domains.
If a student needs work on phonics and decoding, what kind of informal diagnostic assessment would provide the most useful information on how to help this student with these skills? a. a spelling inventory to show which features of English spelling the student has mastered b. a word-reading survey to show which sound-symbol correspondences the student knows and which ones still need practice c. a vocabulary test to show student understanding of word meanings in context d. a test of reading comprehension to show how well the student can answer questions about a grade-level text
b. a word-reading survey to show which sound-symbol correspondences the student knows and which ones still need practice
Cody is in first grade. He almost never raises his hand to participate in class discussions. When called on, he replies very briefly. He tends to use vague words like stuff and rarely uses full sentences. During decoding exercises, he reads words accurately and easily recognizes common patterns; he is a good speller. When he reads stories aloud, he reads fairly accurately but in an expressionless monotone.Which assessment would be most likely to yield valuable information about Cody? a. administering a phonics survey b. reading a story to him and having him orally retell it c. examining samples of his writing d. administering a timed oral reading fluency assessment
b. reading a story to him and having him orally retell it
These tests inform instruction by telling how well instruction is working—that is, how at-risk students are responding to instruction. These formative assessments, typically administered every 1-3 weeks, focus on specific targeted skills. Teachers can use them to determine the effectiveness of a given program or approach.
This measures help predict which students are at risk for reading failure and how they are likely to perform on outcome assessments by measuring their performance against established benchmarks. These measures, such as DIBELS® or AIMSweb®, focus on foundational skills and are administered several times a year in the early grades. Because they are brief, low-cost measures that provide extremely useful information, they are highly efficient.
These surveys inform teachers’ work with at-risk readers. This category includes informal diagnostics teachers use to assess students’ academic knowledge or skills in a particular area (e.g., a developmental spelling inventory or handwriting sample), as well as formal, specialized testing used to determine whether a student fits the criteria for a specific developmental disorder (e.g., an assessment to determine whether and where a child falls on the autism spectrum).
These assessments assess the overall effectiveness of instruction given to a large student population—for example, all students within a state. These high-stakes, summative reading assessments are usually administered at the end of grade 3 or 4. Because they are often normed, they can show how an individual is doing relative to norms and help in comparing groups.
What does diagnosing mean?
Diagnosing means that we need ways to identify what’s wrong with poor readers.
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