We thoroughly check each answer to a question to provide you with the most correct answers. Found a mistake? Tell us about it through the REPORT button at the bottom of the page. Ctrl+F (Cmd+F) will help you a lot when searching through such a large set of questions.
At the end of Volume 1 (Units 1-4) and Volume 2 (Units 5-8), a posttest is given with 45 questions for Volume 1 and 40 questions for Volume 2. The posttest is not timed and can be referenced from notes or a manual.
It is only possible to take each posttest once, but those seeking to become a LETRS facilitator and have scored 80-87% on their posttest may retake it once by contacting customer support. It is important to consider the knowledge increase between pre- and posttests in addition to the score.
Once students decode well, which statement describes the relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension?
Vocabulary is the best single predictor of reading comprehension.
In teaching the word invisible, the teacher broke it into the parts in – vis – ible and talked about the meanings of the parts. Which aspect of language was emphasized?
The Hart and Risley study (1995) identified a “30-million-word” gap. This gap refers to:
the difference in the number of words heard by preschool children raised in high- and low-language family environments.
Which of the following is least likely to narrow the vocabulary gap between language-rich and language-poor students?
watching children’s television programs
To introduce a Tier 2 vocabulary word explicitly and systematically before reading, which of these strategies would be the least effective?
asking students to write the word 10 times until they can spell it
Students must learn the meanings of several thousand new words every year if they are going to meet grade-level expectations for vocabulary growth. About how many of those word meanings should teachers aim to teach explicitly and thoroughly per week?
When a student is an accurate but slow reader, which of the following practices is most effective?
Focus instruction on foundational reading skills that address multiple aspects of language.
In what way should the vocabulary instruction of English Learners (ELs) be distinguished from the vocabulary instruction of native English speakers?
They may need to learn the meanings of the Tier 1 words in a passage.
To select the best vocabulary words to teach before reading a text, the teacher should prioritize which types of words?
words that are central to understanding key meanings in the passage
A primary-grade teacher who wants to implement research-based vocabulary instruction should try to emphasize:
word relationships, including antonyms, synonyms, categories, and semantic families.
Good readers will stop and reread a portion of the text for clarification if they don’t understand it. This behavior demonstrates:
cognitive flexibility and metacognition.
When students read about a topic for which they already have well-developed background knowledge, they are more likely than uninformed students to:
acquire new knowledge faster from the text.
A valuable first step before reading a text with a group of students is:
clearly stating the purpose for reading the text.
Which of the following is the best description of the comprehension process as it relates to reading?
linking the surface code with ideas in the text base
Which teaching strategy is most likely to help students construct a mental model of a texts meanings?
anticipating the takeaways and building background knowledge
Standardized tests of reading comprehension have been shown by research to:
give varied results depending on the content and format.
Which technique would be least relevant for teaching an informational passage about the difference between frogs and toads?
outlining the elements of story grammar
Which of the following activities would help students identify cohesive ties in a text?
having students draw arrows between pronouns and their referents
Which kind of text structure organization is suggested by the topic sentence, “Here are some easy steps for making pancakes”?
process (time sequence)
Which of the following would be a good example to use while teaching students to identify compound sentences?
The rain came but the team played on.
Which criterion best describes a high-quality text for use in read-alouds or comprehension instruction?
It is worth rereading for new meanings.
When students are still learning foundational reading skills, the recommended division of instructional time between word work and language comprehension is:
about 30-40 minutes on word work during a 90-minute reading lesson.
The research consensus on the teaching of comprehension strategies during reading instruction indicates that:
strategy instruction is more effective in grades 4 and up than in grades 1-3.
During a teacher-mediated reading of a story such as The Three Little Pigs, which of these questions is most likely to facilitate construction of a mental model of the texts meanings?
“What have we learned so far about the third pig?”
One of the most important follow-up activities to deepen student understanding of and memory for the content of a specific text is:
retelling or summarizing the text, either orally or in writing.
Students with comprehension weaknesses benefit from teachers actively mediating comprehension because these students:
typically make fewer, lower-quality inferences on their own.
Which one of the following is not a key difference between narrative and informational text?
its appropriateness for classroom libraries in all grades
Dialect differences characterize students in many regions of the United States. Research supports handling these language differences by:
explicitly contrasting “home language” with “school language” in frequent, brief lessons.
The most practical way for teachers to assess student progress in writing is to use:
all of the above.
If an English Learner (EL) is confused about the meaning of a reading passage, a teacher might be more successful conveying the meaning by:
supplementing the language in the text with pictures, actions, and objects.
During the editing phase of writing, a personal editing/proofreading checklist should contain:
a few specific reminders of skills the student has learned and practiced.
Which of these techniques is least helpful for encouraging comprehension monitoring (e.g., students noticing and reacting when the text does not make sense to them)?
waiting until a reading is completed and then asking students to summarize
Of the topic sentences below, which one would be most appropriate for writing an opinion?
This book about wolves is one of my favorites.
About how many American students demonstrate “proficient” or “advanced” writing skills by grade 8, according the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2007)?
Which would be the most essential step to take in preparing students to write a complete narrative?
Talk out ideas and make notes within a Story Framework.
Writing is sometimes called the “quintessential mental juggling act” because:
it requires more cognitive, motor, and language skills than any other academic activity.
Which of the following sentence-writing skills is the most challenging for students to learn?
writing complex sentences beginning with adverbial phrases
The act of transcribing words into print by hand or by keyboarding is part of which phase of the writing process?
The most important reason for systematically teaching and valuing good handwriting and spelling is that:
mastery and automaticity enable higher quality compositions.
Which statement best describes the relationship between foundational writing skills (handwriting, spelling, punctuation, capitalization) and composition?
An equal emphasis on learning foundational skills and composition will work best for most students.