LETRS Unit 2 Assessment Answers

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How is the word pl – ay divided in this example?
syllable onset-rime phoneme-grapheme phoneme onset-rime
 
How many spoken syllables are there in buttered?
1 2 3 4 2
 
How many spoken syllables are there in possible?
1 2 3 4 3
 
The use of nonsense words for phonemic awareness activities is:
useful only occasionally within sound chains. beneficial for English Learners. helpful for those children with weak vocabularies. never suggested. useful only occasionally within sound chains.
 
Which teaching strategy would be most helpful for students who confuse the sounds /f/ and /th/ in their own speech?
While showing each letter, ask the students to say a corresponding phoneme. Ask the students to read a list of words with digraphs th, sh, and ch. Practice segmenting simple words with /f/, /th/, and other fricatives. Have students look in a mirror while describing and producing each sound. Have students look in a mirror while describing and producing each sound.
 
Which student is demonstrating the most advanced level of phonemic awareness?
a student who can use colored blocks to change the sounds in slip to make it slick a student who claps three times for each syllable in the word triangle a student who identifies the first sound in the words flat, fish, and friend as /f/ a student who can provide words that rhyme with cat a student who can use colored blocks to change the sounds in slip to make it slick
 
A student writes the word went as “wet.” What aspect of phonology is associated with this common spelling error?
ubstitution of a final stop for a nasal consonant aspiration of a final stop consonant after a nasal nasalization of a vowel before a nasal consonant affrication of the stop consonant when it is after a nasal nasalization of a vowel before a nasal consonant
 
Best practices for teaching phonemic awareness activities include:
paying attention to letters first, then telling students what sound each letter makes. spending at least 30 minutes per day on phonemic awareness skills. teaching skills from easier to more difficult. focusing on ending sounds before beginning sounds. teaching skills from easier to more difficult.
 
Which set of words would be appropriate for practicing four-phoneme blending?
quit, sling, roast road, meat, they crow, stray, ring boil, sour, claw quit, sling, roast
 
If a student obtains a low score on a test of rapid automatic naming (RAN), what is the teacher’s best course of action?
Ignore the problem, and hope that it will improve with maturation. Continue to develop phonological awareness at the appropriate levels. Focus on speed drills for naming letters, objects, and colors. Include many opportunities for repeated readings of familiar text. Continue to develop phonological awareness at the appropriate levels.
 
Which phonological awareness activity would be most appropriate for early kindergarten students in Ehri’s prealphabetic phase?
“reading” predictable text by tracking the words with their fingers recognizing the rhyming words in “Hickory Dickory Dock” segmenting the phonemes in words like clock isolating and saying the medial vowel in words like beast recognizing the rhyming words in “Hickory Dickory Dock”
 
Which of the following is most likely a symptom of a problem with phonological working memory?
forgetting the words when asked to repeat a sentence confusing the right and the left sides of the body habitually leaving clothing items on the playground not comprehending cause and effect in a narrative forgetting the words when asked to repeat a sentence
 
A second-grade student is given a test that measures simple phoneme segmentation and blending and does well. However, when given the PAST, he can’t perform advanced phonemic awareness tasks. What would be the best skills for him to practice based on these results?
syllable deletion and remembering separate phonemes in a series onset-rime blending and beginning phoneme blending sound deletion and substitution phoneme segmentation; simple syllables with 2-3 phonemes sound deletion and substitution
 
If a student in first grade (or later) often confuses words like bed and bad, pest and past, and pen and pan during spelling, what skill practice would be most appropriate?
learning the difference between a vowel and a consonant learning the meaning of each word discriminating phonemes /ě/ and /ă/ recognizing confusable letter forms discriminating phonemes /ě/ and /ă/
 
As a general guideline, the optimal amount of time to spend on teaching phonemic awareness to normally progressing kindergarten or first-grade students is:
5-10 minutes daily for about 20 weeks. 30 minutes daily for the entire year. 45 minutes daily until they are proficient. 45 minutes daily for the first three months only. 5-10 minutes daily for about 20 weeks.

Unit 2 Guide

 
Phonological processor
Which works with speech sounds
 
Phonological awareness
Awareness of all levels of the speech sound system is the foundation for reading and spelling. the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language
 
Phonological awareness
The ability to identify think about and manipulate units of spoken language is the underpinning for processing reading language symbols. Like syllables, part of syllables called unsaid and rimes, and Phonemes is, the smallest segment of speech that combined to make new words.
 
Four-Part processing model for Word Recognition Number 1: Phonological processor
Helps you understand and produce oral language
 
Four-Part processing model for Word Recognition Number 2: Orthographic processor
Helps you connect words with your visual forms
 
Four-Part processing model for Word Recognition Number 3: Meaning processor
Is your internal dictionary of word definition
 
Four-Part processing model for Word Recognition Number 4: Context processor
Helps you use context to understand what a word means
 
So the four processors from the Four-Part processing model work in isolation. True or False
False they don’t work in isolation they interact
 
If you’ve heard a word spoken in your environment, you will recognize that word more rapidly when you see it in print. How?
This requires coordination between the phonological and orthographic processors.
 
If you know what they were means and I have seen it in print, you can recognize or recall its pronunciation more automatically. How?
In this instance, the meaning processor, orthographic processor, and phonological processor work together.
 
If you analyze the syllables in individual sounds in the word, the words meaning can be more easily stored in semantic memory.
This activate the phonological processor and meaning processor.
 
If you can analyze and manipulated the specific sounds in spoken words, the corresponding printed words Will be easier to remember for reading and spelling. How?
This activate the final logical in orthographic processors.
 
Phonological awareness
conscious awareness of all levels of speech sound system, including word boundaries, stress patterns, syllables, unset-rimes unit, and phonemes.
 
Phonological processing
Multiple functions of speech and language position in production, such as perceiving, interpreting, storing (remembering), recalling her retrieving, and generating the speech sound system of language.
 
Phoneme
In any language, the smallest unit of sound used to build words.
 
Phonemic awareness
Conscious awareness that words are made up of segment of our own speech that are represented with letters in an orthopedic orthography.
 
Phonology
The rule system in the language by which phones can be sequenced, combined, and pronounce to make words.
 
Phonetics
The study of sounds of human speech; articulatory phonetics refers to the way the sounds are physically produced in the human vocal track.
 
Phon
The Greek root meaning vocal sound voice, sound
 
Phonological processor
Allows us to perceive, remember, interpret, and produce the speech sound system of our language——and learn the sounds of other languages.
 
Phonological processor
Analyzes the sounds so we can learn to associate phonemes with their written representations, also known as graphemes.
 
The ability to perceive, produce, and manipulate individual speech sound, or phonemes
is a necessary prerequisite for the ability to read words
 
Does it matter if a phoneme is made in the front, middle, or back of the mouth?
Yes it does
 
Grapheme
Written representation of a speech sound
 
Providing direct, detailed phonemic awareness is only necessary for students who struggle with reading. True or false
False all students need direct and detailed phonemic awareness
 
Which of the following is necessary prerequisite to begin able to read words? a. Perceived individual speech sounds b. Produce individual speech sounds c. Manipulate individual speech sounds d. None of these
a. Perceived b. Produce c. Manipulate individual speech sounds
 
Is it necessary the students know how speech sounds look and feel were in produce as well as how they sound. True or false
True
 
Place of articulation
Where we make the sound—-in the front of The mouth, the back, or in between.
 
Manner of articulation
What we do with the lips, teeth, tongue, vocal cords, and airstream to produce sound.
 
How many phonemes does English have?
Between 40 and 44 phonemes
 
How many consonant phonemes are in English?
25 are constants phonemes
 
Phonemes are altered due to:
Coarticulation, Or the smooshing together of sounds in words Regional variations Or even having a cold
 
RAN
rapid automatic naming
 
RAN (Rapid automatic naming)
Is the ability to name a series of printed letters, numbers, objects or colors.
 
Rapid automatic naming can help us
No a little bit about how easily children will learn to read but it’s predictive value is limited
 
What can you do if you notice a child is bad at rapid automatic naming?
Practicing phonological awareness skills and reading itself can sometimes improve RAN speed. Use instructional time to teach direct oral and written language
 
How many syllables are in phonological? 4 5 6
5
 
Consonant sounds before the vowel is the?
Onsets Example: Plants Pl would be the onset because a is a vowel
 
From the vowel and everything else that comes after it is the?
Rime Example: Plants Ants in the time because a is the vowel
 
How many phonemes does the word shop have?
3 phonemes- 3 different sounds /sh/ /o/ /p/
 
How many phonies does the word cloud have?
4 phonemes- 4 sounds /k/ /l/ /ou/ /d/
 
Without chronological order and the students don’t….?
Students don’t know to read and spell
 
Difficulty with phonological task it’s often associated with..?
Difficulty in reading and spelling
 
Phonology
Serves as a foundation for all literacy
 
Do all students need instruction at multiple levels of phonological and phonemic Awareness ?
Yes our students need this instruction
 
Early Phonological awareness
Usually develop by preschoolers by recognizing and playing with rhyming words as well as counting syllables
 
Basic Phonemic awareness
Usually for kindergarten and first grade they can segment words into sounds and blend them back together
 
Advance phonemic awareness
Usually for second grade and beyond they can use deletion, substitution and reversal but must be accurate and automatic
 
Teachers can strengthen preschool a children’s early Awareness by
Drawing attention to rhyme and alliteration during read aloud’s of stories and nursery rhymes
 
Alphabetic principal
Is the concept that a grapheme represents a phoneme.
 
What happens when students understand the alphabetic principle?
Their spelling becomes more phonetic and their decoding improves.
 
Phonics can refer to?
1. The system that tells us which graphemes spell which phonemes 2. The instruction or use of print patterns, syllable patterns, and meaningful word parts.
 
Screening measures that’s assess phonemic awareness?
Are crucial for predicting which students will need extra help.
 
Will a students native language have the exact same phonemes as English?
No they are not exact
 
Alphabetic Principle
The concept that phonemes are represented by letters and graphemes.
 
How many phonemes are in through 2 3 4 5
3 phonemes- 3 sounds /th/ /r/ /u/
 
How many phonemes are in fox? 2 3 4 5
4 phonemes- 4 different sounds /f/ /o/ /k/ /s/ because the letter x represents two sounds
 
How many phonemes does the word stripe have? 2 3 4 5
5 phonemes- 5 sounds /s/ /t/ /r/ /i/ /p/
 
Allophonic variations
Distortions by the sounds before of after the sound we want to hear
 
What are consonants phonemes?
Speech sounds produced by obstructing the flow of air out of the speaker’s mouth.
 
Phonemes is also called
Speech sounds
 
Phonology
The study of speech sounds in language. An example of phonology is the study of different sounds and the way they come together to form speech and words
 
Consonant Phonemes: Fricatives
Hissy sounds because we use our tongue, lips, and teeth in such a way to restrict airflow.
 
Fricatives are:
Teeth on lip: -Unvoiced; /f/ as in fish. -Voiced; /v/ as in Valentine Tongue between teeth: -Unvoiced; /th/ as in thumb -Voiced; /th ( with a little line on the bottom __) as in feather Tongue on Ridge behind teeth: -Unvoiced; /s/ as in son -Voiced; /z/ as in zebra Tongue pulled back on roof of mouth: -Unvoiced; /sh/ as in shoes -Voiced; /zh/ as in genre (gandra) Glottis: Unvoiced; /h/ as in hat
 
Consonant phonemes
Are speech sounds produced by obstructing the flow of air out of the speakers mouth.
 
Fank you instead of thank you
Student confused the /th/ with /f/ because they have the same hissy sound and same position in mouth.
 
Mat instead of Mad
Student confused /d/ with /t/ because they are similar in articulation ( in the way it’s said in mouth)
 
Chop instead of shop
Student confused /sh/ for /ch/ because both sounds have the same position of tongue, teeth, and lips.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Stops
Stops-made with one burst of air differ from continuants, such as the /s/ sound which can be held until you run out of breath.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Stops
The Stop sounds in English are /p/ as in pig, /b/ as in bat, /t/ as in tack /d/ as in dog, / k/as in cup, /g/ as in goat They can be difficult to say without adding an /uh/ sound at the end because they don’t have a lot of airflow.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Stops
UNVOICED: Lips together- /p/ as in pig, Tongue on Ridge behind teeth- /t/ as in tack, Back of Throat- / k/as in cup, VOICED: Lips together- /b/ as in bat, Tongue on Ridge behind teeth- /d/ as in dog, Back of Throat- /g/ as in goat
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Nasals
Nasals are produced by driving air through the nose. If you try to say those sounds and pinched your nose shut, you wouldn’t be able to articulate them.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Nasals
The three nasal sounds are: /m/ as in man, /n/ as in nest, /ng/ as in sing No word in English begins with /ng/ it always comes after a vowel.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Nasals
/m/ as in man, Back of Throat /n/ as in nest, Lips together /ng/ as in sing Tongue on ridge behind teeth
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Fricatives
Fricatives are hissy sounds, because we use our tongue, lips, and teeth in such a way to construct the airflow. There is a lot of friction going on in fricatives.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Fricatives
Fricatives are: UNVOICED: Teeth on lip: /f/ as in fish, Tongue between teeth: /th/ as in thumb Tongue on ridge behind teeth: /s/ as in son Tongue pulled back on roof of mouth: /sh/ as in shoes Glottis: /h/ as in hat VOICED: Tongue pulled back on roof of mouth: /zh/ as in genre Tongue on ridge behind teeth: /z/ as in zebra Tongue between teeth: /th (with line on bottom)/ as in feather Teeth on lip: /v/ as in valentine
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Affricates
These can be considered chopped fricatives Because they combine features of stops with those of fricatives. Affricates are: /ch/ as in chin, /j/ as in jam,
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Affricates
UNVOICED: Tongue pulled back on roof of mouth /ch/ as in chin VOICED: Tongue pulled back on roof of mouth /j/ as in jam
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Glides
Glides are always followed by a vowel sound. We call them glides because the consonant sound glides right into the vowel sound. The three glide sounds are: /wh/ as in wheel (/wh/), /w/ as in window (/w/) /y/ as in yo-yo
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Glides
Note that for /wh/ and /w/ some linguistics focus on the tongue retraction to the back of the throat. However the more obvious future is the rounding of the lips when articulating these sounds.
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Liquids
They impact the sounds that are around them in the word often, distorting the vowels that come before them. The two liquids are: /l/ as in leaf and /r/ as in rabbit
 
Consonant Phonemes (sounds): Liquids
/l/ as in leaf: tongue on Ridge behind teeth /r/ as in rabbit: tongue pulled back on roof of mouth
 
The student writes “bark” instead of brag
A student who makes this error substitutes the unvoiced consonant /k/ for the voiced /g/. Both /k/ and /g/ have an identical place of articulation. They are both articulated at the back of the throat and they’re both stop sounds.
 
The students writes “smake” instead of snake
This confusion suggests that the student is confused about the position of the /n/ sound. In this example the student has substituted a sound articulated in the front of the mouth, /m/, with a sound articulated with the tongue in the middle of the mouth, /n/.
 
The student writes “md” instead of “bed”
The error here is a little harder to understand. The student confused the nasal sound /m/ with the stop sound /b/ because both are articulated in the same place with the lips together.
 
The student writes “md” instead of “bed”
However the students need to distinguish the nasal /m/ from the stop /b/.
 
Student writes “van” instead of fan
The student substituting voice fricative /v/ for unvoiced fricative /f/,
 
Student writes “gad” instead of glad
This student likely does not quite here the /l/ in glad.
 
Suppose a student writes “charp” instead of “sharp”. What phonological error is the likely cause? A. Confusing the two affricate sounds B. Substituting an affricate sound for a fricative sound C. Confusing two different unvoiced fricatives D. Substituting an unvoiced fricative for a voiced fricative
B. Substituting an affricate sound for a fricative sound Because the /sh/ sound at the beginning of “sharp” is an unvoiced fricative, sometimes confused with the affricate sound /ch/. “This” begins with a voiced fricative, /th/, which can be confused with other voiced fricatives, such as /v/. “Mop” ends with an unvoiced stop, /p/, which can be confused with its voiced counterpart, /b/.
 
Suppose a student writes “vis” instead of “this”. What phonological error is the likely cause? A. Substituting a Nasal sound for a fricative sound B. Substituting a glide sound for a fricative sound C. Confusing two different voiced fricatives D. Substituting an unvoiced fricative for a voiced fricative
C. Confusing two different voiced fricatives This begins with the voice fricative, /th/, which can be confused with other voiced fricatives, such as /v/.
 
Suppose a student writes “mob” instead of “mop”. What phonological error is the likely cause? A. Substituting a nasal sound for a stop B. Substituting a voice stop for an unvoiced stop C. Confusing two different voiced stops D. Misunderstanding where the sound is articulated in the mouth
B. Substituting a voice stop for an unvoiced stop Mob ends with an unvoiced stop, /p/, which can be confused with its voiced counterpart, /b/.

LETRS Assessment Answers

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