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LETRS Unit 2 Session 1 Answers
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 1? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 2? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 3? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 4? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 5? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
Which of the following words best completes the sentence when inserted into blank 6? phonological processing phonological awareness phoneme phonemic awareness phonology phonetics
LETRS Unit 2 Session 2 Answers
Several kinds of _______ __________ predict the ability to read, spell and write between Kindergarten and Second Grade.
_____________ _____________, especially segmenting and blending individual sounds in simple spoken words, predicts future reading problems in kindergarten and beginning first grade better than other phonological tasks such as rhyming, allieteration,word repetition, or syllable counting.
__________ __________ is comprised of three levels; early, basic and advanced.
__________ ________ _________ usually develops in preschoolers, with appropriate experiences, and include rhyming, alliteration, syllable segmentatio and first-sound matching in words that are found in alliterative phrases. These skills facilitate early matching of printed letters to letter names and letter sounds.
Early Phonological Awareness
________ __________ _________ typically develops in Kindergarten and First Grade. Skills are usually tested in universal screening measures (DIBELS Next, AIMSweb, and easyCBM. They include phoneme segmentation and blending of single-syllable words without consonant blends.
Basic Phonological Awareness
_______ ________ _________ skills continue to develop through fourth grade and include the ability to substitute sounds for one another in a spoken word, reverse the order of sounds, and insert or delete sounds to make new words. Needed for efficient sight vocabulary development.
Advanced Phonological Awareness
Problems with _______ _________ awareness may go undetected by teachers once students are past the first grade.
Any student who is less than _________ in reading and spelling, no matter what age, should have his or her phonological skills tested with a screener that includes advanced phoneme manipulations and that accounts for the automaticity of student response.
At age 4, Early Phonological Awareness skills include; responsiveness to rhyme and alliteration during word play are addressed by enjoying and reciting _______ words or __________ phrases in familiar storybooks or nursery rhymes.
At age 5, Early Phonological Awareness skills include; rhyme recognition, clapping, __________ syllables, matching words with the same first sound by using the following tasks; Which two words rhyme? stair, steel, chair. Hickory dickory dock, the mouse went up the _____?
At age 5.5, Basic Phonemic Awareness skills include distinguishing and remembering separate phonemes in a series, _________ onset and rime, segementing and pronouncing the initial sound of a word by using the following tasks; showing sequences of single phonemes with colored blocks, What word? th-umb and say the first sound in shoelace (/sh/).
At age 6, Basic Phonemic Awareness skills include syllable deletion, deleting part of a compound, onset-rime blending, beginning phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, simple syllables with _____________ (no blends) by using the following tasks; Say parsnip. Say it again but don’t say par. /sh/ – op (shop), say each sound in the word as you move a chip for each sound: /sh/ – /e/, /m/-/a/-/n/.
At age 6.5, Basic Phonemic Awareness includes, phoneme segmentation up to ____________________ including blends, Phoneme substitution to build new words- simple syllables with NO blends, extracting and pronouncing beginning, final, and media phonemes from one-syllable words by using the following tasks; say phonemes while tapping sounds, change /j/ in cage to /n/, change to /a/ in cane to /o/. Say last sound in milk. Say the vowel sound in rope.
At age 7, Advanced Phonemic Awareness includes; sound deletion, initial and final position, sound substitution in words with _____________ by using the following tasks; Say meat, Say it again without the /m/. Listen. What sound have I changed? Shrink, shrank, square, squire.
At age 8, Advanced Phonemic Awareness skills include sound deletion, intial position, including ________ by using the following tasks; say prank. Now say in again without the /p/.
At age 9, Advanced Phonemic Awareness skills include; sound deletion, medial and final blend position, phoneme reversal and phoneme chaining by using the following tasks; Say safe. Say the last sound first and the first sound last (face), in a series of words that change only one sound at a time, use colored blocks to show addition, deletion, substitution, and resequencing of sounds from one word to the _______.
LETRS Unit 2 Session 3 Answers
Phonemic awareness instruction for young learners is most beneficial when linked with phonics instruction.
The inventory of phonemes used in Spanish is nearly identical to that used in English.
A screening test measures segmentation of three phonemes in a word. This screening test has the best predictive validity for students in which grade levels?
Kindergarten or First Grade
How much phonological awareness training should be done with students for maximum effectiveness?
a few minutes a day, several days per week
Which of the following changes typically take place once a child has grasped the alphabetic principle? Select all that apply.
Spelling becomes more phonetically accurate. AND Attempts to decode text focus more on blending sounds.
LETRS Unit 2 Session 4 Answers
Practice the stops.
Lips Together Unvoiced: /p/ Lips Together Voiced: /b/ Tongue on Ridge Unvoiced: /t/ Tongue on Ridge Voiced: /d/ Back of Throat Unvoiced: /k/ Back of Throat Voiced:/g/
Practice the nasals.
Lips Together: /m/ Tongue on Ridge: /n/ Back of Throat: /ng/
Practice the fricatives.
Teeth on Lip Unvoiced: /f/ Teeth on Lip Voiced: /v/ Tongue Between Teeth Unvoiced: /th/ (thumb) Tongue Between Teeth Voiced: /th/ (feather) /th/ is underlined Tongue on Ridge Unvoiced: /s/ Tongue on Ridge Voiced: /z/ Tongue Pulled Back Unvoiced: /sh/ Tongue Pulled Back Voiced /zh/ (garage, beige, genre) Glottis Unvoiced: /h/
Practice the affricates.
Tongue Pulled Back Unvoiced: /ch/ Tongue Pulled Back Voiced: /j/ (jam)
Practice the glides.
Lips Together and Back of Throat Unvoiced: /wh/ (wheel) Lips Together and Back of Throat Voiced: /w/ (window) Tongue Pulled Back Voiced: /y/ (yo-yo)
Practice the liquids.
Tongue on Ridge: /l/ Tongue Pulled Back: /r/
nasal sound, lips together
voiced counterpart to /ch/
Phonological error: charp instead of sharp
substituting an affricate sound for a fricative sound
Phonological error: vis for this
confusing two different voiced fricatives
Phonological error: mob for mop
substituting a voiced stop for an unvoiced stop
In many instances, two different consonant phonemes in English are formed the same way in the mouth, but one is voiced and the other is unvoiced.
Adults often miscount the number of phonemes in a word because they tend to recall how a word looks in print and count the letters, not the sounds.
Which of the following sounds is an affricate, meaning it combines features of fricatives and stops?
Which of the following pairs are consonant sounds that students frequently confuse? Select all that apply.
/t/ and /d/ /m/ and /n/
Which of the following misspellings is phonetically accurate and does not indicate phonemic confusion? Select all that apply.
LETRS Unit 2 Session 5 Answers
Practice the sounds.
Sound 1: Short I Sound 2: /aw/ Sound 3: /oo/ (both are short o’s) Sound 4: /er/ Sound 5: /oi/ Sound 6: /e/ (short e) Sound 7: /o/ (long o) Sound 8: schwa
Front: Short and Long A, E, I Low/Middle: Short O and Short U Back/Rounded: Long O, Long U, /oo/, /yu/, /aw/ Diphthongs: /ou/ and /oi/ R Controlled: /er/, /ar/, /or/
Word Sort 1
sport: or spoil: oi heal: long e shook: oo cute: yu neigh: long a
Word Sort 2
cyst: short i couch: ou black: short a light: long i spot: short o up: short u
Word Sort 3
about: schwa wedge: short e taught: aw bold: long o flew: long u flirt: er spark: ar
English vowels are easier for students to pronounce and write than consonants.
What makes r-controlled vowel sounds so confusing for students?
The r takes over the preceding vowel sound.
Which of the following sounds is considered a front vowel?
Which of the following vowels require that the mouth shift position during production of the sound? Select all that apply.
Which of the following vowel sounds would be classified by a linguist as “tense” vowels?
long e and /yu/
LETRS Unit 2 Session 6
Spanish vs. English
There are fewer phonemes in Spanish. Students whose first language is Spanish will benefit from being directly and intentionally taught the English phonemes that do not appear in Spanish.
The differences between English and Spanish phonemes represent significant challenges to Spanish ELs in both oral and written English. Spanish ELs face challenges in learning new phonemes and new phoneme-grapheme pairings. Understanding the differences between Spanish and English phonemes and phoneme-grapheme pairings is important to teachers because (select all that apply): a. it will help them teach their Spanish ELs more effectively. b. they will be alert for the phoneme substitutions used by their Spanish ELs when the students are speaking. c. they will be aware of how the phoneme substitutions used by their Spanish ELs impact their reading and spelling skills.
How does the misspelling of “brother” as “brudr” illustrate a feature of Spanish?
Spanish has a voiced /th/ phoneme, represented by the letter “d.”
In which of the following words is the letter “i” used for the long “e” sound (/ē/)? Select all that apply.
mit, wi, prti
How do you explain the spelling of “japi” for “happy”?
The student has substituted Spanish spellings for the sounds /h/ and /ē/.
How does the misspelling of “then” as “din” illustrate common AAE patterns?
The /d/ sound is substituted for the fricative /th/.
Which misspelling illustrates a reduction of sounds in ending consonant blends?
“fras” for “friends”
In item 10, the student misspelled “shine” as “sin.” Why did this student spell the first sound with an “s”?
He is confused between two fricative sounds.
In item 23, the student spells the word “camped” as “camt.” This is an example of what kind of error?
misspelled the suffix by how it sounds and omitting sounds within a final consonant blend
Overall, how well does this student represent silent “e” patterns and vowel teams?
Poorly; he is aware of most vowel sounds but does not use the correct letter-sound correspondences.
What is a logical next step in instruction for this first-grader?
teaching silent “e” patterns and vowel teams
An allophonic variation is:
a sound that, when spoken in a word, is altered by its surrounding sounds.
Which of the following is true about coarticulation?
It causes allophonic variations.
When people confuse sounds based on aspiration, the cause is:
a difference in airflow.
A student who misspells the word “stop” due to the allophonic variation of aspiration might spell it which of the following ways?
How many nasal sounds are in the word “mink”?
How might a student misspell the word “slant” if she is confused by nasalization?
What would you say to a student who misspelled “better” as “bedr”?
“The middle sound in the word sounds like /d/, but we spell it with the letters ‘tt.'”
What would you say to a student who spelled “shouted” as “shoudid”?
“The ending sounds in the word sound like /d/-/ĭ/-/d/, but ‘shout’ is spelled with a ‘t’ and the suffix is always spelled ‘e – d.'”
How might a student misspell the word “try” if she is confused by the allophonic variant of affrication?
For whom is affrication typically a problem?
beginning readers and spellers
“Trick-or-treating” is misspelled “chicrchetit.” Why did this student begin the words “trick” and “treat” with the letters “ch”?
The sound at the beginning of these words sounds like /ch/ due to the allophonic variation of affrication; /t/ is followed by /r/.
Which allophonic variation is responsible for the misspelling of the word “candy” as “cade”?
nasalization of the vowel
Which allophonic variation is responsible for the misspelling of the word “sick” as “sig”?
Why does this student consistently misspell “get” as “git”?
She likely has a strong dialect and says the word this way when speaking.
Spanish has 22 phonemes represented by 27 symbols, compared to English’s 44 phonemes and 26 symbols.
The variations common in African American English are predictable and governed by rules.
Which of the following occurs as a result of coarticulation? Select all that apply.
allophonic variations, in which we pronounce individual phonemes differently from how would pronounce them in isolation AND misspellings of words that are, in fact, phonetically logical
Which of the following misspellings likely results from confusion about unaspirated or deaspirated stop consonants?
spelling skip as “sgip”
In which group of words does a tongue flap create significant differences between American and British pronunciations?
cattle, city, metal
LETRS Unit 2 Session 7 Answers
Case Study Anna
Anna is at the early level of phonemic awareness.
Case Study Javier
Javier is at the advanced level of phonemic awareness.
Case Study Ronaldo
Ronaldo is at the basic level of phonemic awareness.
What is the first and primary focus of teaching phonemic awareness?
teaching students specific phonemes and how they feel in the mouth
Classroom phonemic awareness exercises should be:
multisensory, involving hearing, sound, touch, and movement
Which item would you use to show students how to articulate specific phonemes?
Which English phonemes can be omitted from phonological awareness instruction?
none; all should be taught
Which is the best approach to planning phonological awareness instruction?
Plan a brief session (5-10 minutes) each day.
Ms. Ogle had students blend “contest,” “happen,” and “winter.” How did she exemplify good phonological awareness instruction?
She used movement; students made fists and then brought their hands together.
In early phonological awareness alliteration exercises, how important is explaining that different letters make the same sound (e.g., Fussy PHil)?
Not important; students don’t need to know how the words are spelled.
Which series of activities represents the best instructional progression for children at the early phonological awareness level?
delete syllables from compounds; clap syllables in three-syllable words; divide words into onset-rime.
As she had students identify the sounds in “gum,” Ms. Howell touched her throat when saying the sounds. Why?
to draw students’ attention to how the /g/ sound is articulated
Which of the following pairs of words is more difficult for students who are struggling with phonology to discriminate, segment, and blend?
“chomp” and “lump,” because the final sounds are consonant blends
What is the primary purpose of doing sound chaining activities and minimal pairs activities with students?
getting them to attend carefully to specific phonemes, one at a time
Dr. Tolman had students delete the first sound in “grow” and “sled.” What other words of equal difficulty could she use?
Students in Ehri’s prealphabetic phase need instruction in basic oral language skills before manipulating phonemes.
Sound chaining should begin with substituting the middle sounds and end sounds in a word, as these are most difficult.
Which of the following principles are important for teaching phonological skills in particular? Select all that apply.
Focus students’ attention on speech sounds before focusing on letters. Include all English phonemes
Which activities work with students at the early phonological awareness level? Select all that apply.
having students identify rhyming words in texts you read aloud saying a two-syllable word, then asking students to delete one syllable and say the word that results having students clap or tap to count the syllables in a word you say
A colleague is going to start beginning sound chaining activities with students at the basic phonemic awareness level, using colored blocks to represent sounds. What is the most important guideline to follow?
Have students add, change, delete, or move only ONE sound at a time.
LETRS Unit 2 Session 8 Answers
True or False? Assessing phonological skills is almost never appropriate after a child has completed first grade.
True or False? Phonemic awareness is difficult to measure directly as an isolated skill.
What features separate the PAST from other phonological skills assessments? Select all that apply.
b. Automaticity is a factor in determining a student’s score. d. The assessor gives corrective feedback if the student responds incorrectly.
Which kinds of tasks are the primary focus of phonological skills assessment in grades K1?
phoneme segmentation and blending
Kelsey is in grade 2. Previously a strong reader, she has now fallen behind. She reads grade-level texts haltingly, struggling to recognize words with blends. Which phonological task would she likely struggle with? Select all that apply.
b. “Say crate. Now say crate but don’t say /k/.” d. “Say bask. Now say bask but don’t say /s/.”
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