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LETRS Unit 3 Session 1 Answers
____________ represents the two major components of learning to read: word recognition and language comprehension.
The Reading Rope identifies three major strands or subskills that contribute to printed word ____________; phonological awareness, decoding, and sight word recognition.
_______________ awareness emphasizing the strong predictive relationship between phonemic awareness and learning to read an alphabetic writing system.
__________ is the ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences.
To know what the word actually says, the reader must look closely at all the letters and ______ them into sound and sense.
_________ ___________ ____________ is the goal of word study, or the point of learning to decode by phonics and to recognize orthographic patterns, is to develop automatic recognition of words.
Sight Word Recognition
The term __________ refers to three different aspects; phoneme-grapheme correspondence, strategy for decoding new words, essential component of reading (one of the five pillars).
Phonics instruction offers a critical _______________ for most students in the regular classroom and in intervention programs.
Explicit, _____________, cumulative instruction that teaches students to decode graphemes and blend the corresponding phonemes and/or syllables received stronger suppor in high-level research than other types of instruction.
Phonics may not be ______________ with a given student if that student’s phonological awareness is seriously underdeveloped because phonemic awareness is the foundation for acquiring decoding skill.
Scope and sequence of phonics and word-reading skills determine lesson design and sequence, and type of reading practice. Is what feature of the reading program?
Decodable; contains high proportion of pattern words that have been taught. Is what feature of the reading program?
Texts for Reading
Phonemic awareness, explicit phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, writing; use of decodalbe text at K-1 level. Is what feature of the reading program?
About half the time spent on word work (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency in word recognition), the rest on language and oral reading in K-1. Is what feature of the reading program?
More teacher-led activities; teacher actively leads students through decoding activities and guided practice. Is what feature of the reading program?
Students asked to look carefully at the word, sound it out, check and see if it makes sense. Is what feature of the reading program?
Skill building from sounds to words to sentences to text with high percentage of words that have been taught. Is what feature of the reading program?
Types of Practice
Components of a ____________ ______________ Plan include; state goal and purpose, practice phonological awareness, review previous lesson, introduce new concept, provide guided practic, provide extended practic, practic dictation, connect to word meaning, read text.
LETRS Unit 3 Session 2 Answers
T/F? Roughly half of all words in English can be spelled correctly based on established sound-symbol correspondences.
Complete this sentence: A complex syllable is a syllable that contains a ______ . a. digraph b. consonant blend c. vowel team d. VCe pattern
b. consonant blend
Complete this sentence: Vowel teams in English can have up to ______ letters. two three four five
Which set(s) of words include only words that have consonant digraphs, and no words with blends? Select all that apply. a. father, shin, reach b. cheek, less, silk c. rough, phone, bang d. stripe, laugh, wish
a. father, shin, reach c. rough, phone, bang
Which set of words illustrates both the Floss rule and the “-ck” rule? a. flick, sack, lock b. fuss, cell, will c. soak, flake, lurk d. slick, kiss, cuff
d. slick, kiss, cuff
LETRS Unit 3 Session 3 Answers
Students are likely to demonstrate one set of phase characteristics before _________________ to the next phase, in which the student’s approach to reading will be qualitatively different from the previous phase.
Teaching must be _____________ to the appropriate student level for growth to occur.
A student knows some, but not all, _____________ ___________ names and forms; practice alphabet matching, naming, and ordering until alphabet letters can be named in random order and put in order.
A student may be aware of how ______ looks – alternating letters, spacing, etc.; practice writing the letters until the alphabet can be written to dictation (model), dictation (no model) and memory. Use lowercase for writing; use uppercase and lowercase for naming.
A student may not understand the concept of a _______ _________; has little phonemic awareness; Gradually build associations between gestures, key words, and speech sounds. Emphasize articulation.
A student is beginning to match words ________ by initial consonants; Blend the parts of compounds, then syllables, then onset-rime units, then phonemes in one-syllable, simple words.
A student may lack knowledge of word ____________ or information required to understand text; Build vocabulary through read-alouds, theme units, and expressive language games. Stimulate verbal expression through retelling, structured conversation, and question-response routines.
A student tries to sound out by associating sound with _____ letter and, perhaps, another letter or two; guesses at the rest; Match all sounds on consonant and vowel charts to key words and common spellings.
A student wants to ______ on context (e.g., pictures, topical knowledge) to guess at words; Blend known phoneme-grapheme correspondences into words, left to right, as consonants and vowels are learned. Practice automatic recognition of high-frequency words (regular and irregular, a few per week.
A student begins to read simple _____ with known words; Start to read decodable text with known letter-sound correspondences and high-frequency words.
A student attends to books read aloud, ______ and _________ questions, and retells what the reading is about; Browse text and predict before reading.
asks and answers
A student understands the _________ of classroom instruction; Differentiate question words (who, what, when, where, why, how); ask and answer questions. Retell or summarize what was read.
A student writes simple sentences to ____________; participates in shared writing; composes orally and attempts new spellings; Begin to spell high-frequency words accurately and to spell regular words by sound.
A student can spell words ______________, with all the speech sounds represented (letter name spellings still common); Increase knowlege of rime patterns, word families, “choice” spellings for consonants, and most common spellings for all vowel sounds.
A student shows knowlege of letter ______________ and orthographic constraints; Read and spell blends and diagraphs.
A student is learning the most common _______ words for reading and spelling; Read and spells words with short vowels, vowel-consonant-e, and inflections such as -ed, -s, -ing.
A student is starting to chunk common ____________ and letter sequences – such as -ing and -ack-and to read by analogy; Learn vowel teams and vowel-r patterns.
A student can read decodable text, although not ___________; commonly reads word by word; Read decodable text with learned patterns and sight words, increase fluency. Reread for context if decoding attempt does not make sense. Partner read; use peer-assisted tutoring routines. Expand theme-related vocabulary. Write and publish first storybooks.
A student can generalize phonics skills to ___________ words, then uses context as backup; Increase accuracy and automaticity with high-frequency words and regular words for reading.
A student is increasing __________ in passge; Decode two-syllable and three-syllable words, using most common syllable division principles.
A student recognizes more than 200 _________-______________ words by sight; Increase speed to 60-90 words per minute with independent reading material (95% correct).
A student uses context to fully identify the ____________ of new words; Expand vocabulary at rate of 800 or more words per year through second grade, then at the rate of 2,000 words per per.
A student can employ beginning comprehension ___________ – browsing, anticipating, questioning, clarifying, retelling and summarizing – with teacher support; Deepen awareness of different genres-narrative and expository-and how they are organized.
A student can ____________ readable compositions with capitals, end punctuation, and most words spelled correctly or phonetically; Plan before writing and stick to the plan.
If students are lacking basic phonemic awareness, it is likely that their needs fit the profile of _____________ learners.
If students have partial phonemic awareness, but not full phonemic awareness, and are beginning to pair alphabet letters with sounds, the students may fit the profile of __________ ________________ learners.
If students have phonemic awareness and can spell each sound phonetically, but are just learning how printed words are actually spelled, they are likely in the _________ ____________ phase.
If students have phonemic awareness and knowledge of basic phonics but need to read whole words, syllables, and morphemes with more fluency, they are probably in the ___________ __________ phase.
One of Ehri’s most important points is that sight word learning – fast recognition of words – is _____________ by and correlated with phonic knowledge, or the ability to match phonemes and grapheme rapidly and accurately.
The most direct way to measure automatic recognition of real words is with graded lists, read under ________ and _________ conditions.
timed and untimed
LETRS Unit 3 Session 4 Answers
Students should be introduced to one new letter name every ______ or ________ days.
one or two
During the first _____________ weeks of Kindergarten, the names of all the letters, uppercase and lowercase, should be direct taught through a combination of direct teaching and play-based experience with manipulatives.
Knowledge of letter names and fluency of letter naming in Kindergarten are among the best __________ of later reading success.
______________ of letter naming include; beginning of orthographic processing;discrimination of confusable letters, clues of phoneme-grapheme matching, spelling (orally and silent) requires memory for letter names.
Early Kindergarten students need daily experiences with hands on _______________ such as alphabet puzzles; shapes for letter building, sand tracing, whipped cream, sandpaper or templates for matching wooden or plastic letter shapes.
Before asking young children to hold a pencil and control it in a small space, teachers by writing large objects or _________ shapes.
Young learners need __________ guidelines to learn differences between tall letters, short letters and letters below the baseline.
When children learn to write individual letters, they are developing both _____________ (hand movement) and ________________ (letter recognition) skill.
graphomotor and orthographic
Effective teaching for writing includes; ___________ descriptions and verbal coaching and showing model letters with numbered __________ indicating the sequence of strokes.
These letters require a ________________ circle; a,c,o,d,g,q.
These letters require a _______________ first line; b,f,h,l,j.i,k,m,n,p,r,t,u
These letters with _______________ lines and diagnols; e,s,v,w,x,y,z
The ____________ of every instructional sequence is accurate, automatic word recognition, and/or recall of specific words for writing.
Teachers should follow a ____________ to teach new correpondences explicitly.
It is __________________ to ask students to write lengthy compositions by hand before they have automatized good letter-formation habits.
___________________ procedures are best introduced in phonics lessons using simple CVC words (e.g., sun, mop, red) that do not have blends.
Encourage students to begin to blend words silently or in a __________ before saying the whole word aloud.
LETRS Unit 3 Session 5 Answers
To reinforce the mental habit of using _________ ____________ skills, each lesson should provide practice reading between 15-30 words that have the sound-symbol correspondences that the students has been taught.
Sounds and graphemes must be processed to commit a word to _____________.
In a ________ sort, the teacher tells the students how to sort the words and procives the names of the categories. Closed sorts are more structure than open sorts and are excellent for guided practice of a concept that has been taught.
________ sorts are open-ended and therfore more difficult than closed sorts. Not all words fit into the specified categories; some fit in doesn’t belong.
It is important to be clear whether students should sort words by sound _____________ or spelling _______________.
______________ __________ is a good way to reinforce the idea that some graphemes are used only at the ends of words.
The purpose of a _______ _______ is to give students practice recognizing subtle differences between and among similar-sounding words. Should differ in only one phoneme.
__________ __________ are groups of words that share recurring rime unit, meaning the vowel and what follows in a syllable.
Some words have ____________ ______________ which facilitates word recognition, so it is important to teach word meanings to beginning readers.
Learning multiple meanings of words ________ up the word retrieval and word recognition and contributes to both vocabulary development and reading fluency.
Words in ______ are helpful for beginning readers.
_____________ _____________ activities in which students must decide if words belong in the same meaning category are also productive for both building the mental dictionary and reinforcing decoding skills.
LETRS Unit 3 Session 6 Answers
Pattern words that are easy to read are also easy for students to spell.
Sentence dictation routines should include reminders about basic writing conventions (e.g., capitalization, end punctuation).
Which is the best definition of the term sight words?
any words a reader can recognize instantly and read
A teacher groups the following words on a word wall: mind, kind, find, bind, and rind. What do the words have in common? Select all that apply.
b. They share a spelling pattern. c. Their spellings are somewhat irregular.
How often should teachers introduce students to new irregular, high-frequency words?
three to five times per week
LETRS Unit 3 Session 7 Answers
Leveled texts are ranked on objective readability criteria, gradually becoming more difficult as students progress through the levels.
If a teacher follows a systematic process for transferring phonics skills to text, it’s reasonable to expect students to read a decodable passage independently after a week of instruction.
A school library has available a series of lavishly illustrated predictable texts written in verse. What are the most appropriate ways to use these in the classroom?
a. Use them as teacher read-alouds to enhance oral language and comprehension skills.
Students are reading a decodable text that uses only pattern words or high-frequency words students have been taught. What level of reading accuracy is reasonable to expect?
Over the course of a week of phonics instruction, which step in the Transfer to Text Process is the first that can be phased out?
b. Practice reading skill words in isolation before reading them in a passage.
LETRS Unit 3 Session 8 Answers
The quality of Tier 2 and Tier 3 instruction is the most important variable affecting student progress in grades K-3.
Successful implementation of an RTI or MTSS model depends on collaboration among all faculty.
What proportion of students are likely to need Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction even when Tier 1 instruction is effective?
c. at least 20%
Based on the assessment data presented in this session, what can you conclude about how teachers professional development (PD) affects students’ performance outcomes?
d. PD to build teacher expertise and provide coaching supports significantly improved student performance.
Your district has selected a solid, research-based core instructional program for reading. Which guideline best explains how an individual teacher should implement this program?
b. Follow it, but if necessary supplement it, or adjust the pacing to meet students’ needs.
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