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LETRS Unit 4 Session 1 Answers
- Is it true that direct instruction in word structure (as distinct from phonics instruction) improves accuracy and automaticity in reading?
- Is it true that many common English words combine simple Anglo-Saxon words with Greek-derived forms?
- What mental process is required for proficient word reading?
Answer: Orthographic mapping.
- From which language are new scientific terms in the physical sciences most likely to be coined?
- Which sound-symbol correspondences are common in words of Anglo-Saxon origin? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: Use of “kn” for the /n/ sound and use of silent “e”.
LETRS Unit 4 Session 2 Answers
- Is it acceptable for students to use invented spelling occasionally in phoneme-grapheme mapping activities? Answer: False.
- Do some letters of the alphabet never end a word in English?
- Words in which the letter “y” stands for the short “i” sound (such as “rhythm” and “polyp”) are usually from which language?
- When the /ch/ sound follows an accented short vowel, in which circumstance is the “tch” spelling of the /ch/ sound usually used?
Answer: When the /ch/ sound follows an accented short vowel.
- Which set of words does not follow the usual rules for pronunciation of “c” and “g”? (gills, cello, get)
Answer: None of these sets of words follow the usual rules for pronunciation of “c” and “g.”
LETRS Unit 4 Session 3 Answers
- Should classifying syllable types in multisyllabic words be considered a scaffolding activity, not a goal in itself?
- Can consonant-le (Cle) syllables occur anywhere within a word and be stressed or unstressed?
- In which of these examples does the vowel sound’s position in a syllable or word determine which vowel team represents it? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: The /ā/ sound in “stain”, “sail”, “away”, and “payment”; the /ō/ sound in “float”, “row”, “window”, and “toadstool”; the /oi/ sound in “coin”, “ploy”, “android”, and “destroy”.
- If a student reads aloud a multisyllabic word but it doesn’t sound right, what strategy should be applied? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: Dividing the syllables a different way and flexing the vowel sound(s).
- Which syllable type occurs in each of these words: “adage,” “lettuce,” “callous,” “ocean,” and “station”?
Answer: An odd syllable with a schwa.
LETRS Unit 4 Session 4 Answers
- Should students learn inflectional suffixes such as -ed and -s before learning derivational suffixes like -ful and -less?
- Does adding a derivational suffix to a word often change the part of speech?
- The noun plural is pronounced as a whole syllable, /əs/, when it follows which type of phoneme? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: Some fricatives and affricates (b/d).
- Look at the syllable breaks in the words below. In which word do the syllable breaks correspond exactly with divisions between morphemes?
- For which of these verbs would you need to change “y” to “i” before adding the suffix -ed? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: “Defy” and “deny.”
LETRS Unit 4 Session 5 Answers
- Can understanding the syllable structure or morphological structure of a word make it easier to spell?
- Should reading and spelling be taught as separate strands within a reading program starting in fourth grade? Answer: False.
- About how many irregular spelling words should be introduced per week as part of spelling instruction?
- Which of the following are assessed on the Basic Spelling Screener and the Advanced Spelling Screener? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: A student’s ability to spell specific types of letter-sound correspondences (e.g., consonant blends) and a student’s ability to spell whole words.
- Which spelling concept is usually taught in third grade?
Answer: Multisyllabic base words.
LETRS Unit 4 Session 6 Answers
- Can developing automaticity in word recognition lead to improved reading comprehension?
- Are students in the highest fluency percentile for their grade level much better readers overall than their peers with average fluency?
- Which of the following techniques specifically targets automaticity as a fluency subskill?
Answer: Speed drills.
- Which of the following techniques specifically targets reading prosody as a fluency subskill?
Answer: Phrased-cued oral reading.
- How much gained fluency (as measured by WCPM) is reasonable to expect from a student who reads a passage several times over a week?
Answer: About 10 percent.
LETRS Unit 4 Session 7 Answers
- When a student develops reading problems early on, is it usually appropriate to look for weaknesses in word recognition?
- Can students with weak word-recognition skills compensate somewhat by relying on background knowledge and vocabulary? Answer: True.
- If initial data show a student is not performing at grade level, what is the next step to closely examine? ORF performance (accuracy and WCPM) results from decoding and word-reading survey ORF performance accuracy and WCPM.
Answer: ORF performance (accuracy and WCPM) results from decoding and word-reading survey.
- If a student’s general performance is not at level, but his or her ORF measures show accuracy, what are appropriate next steps? (Select all that apply.)
Answer: Check the fluency of prerequisite skills and focus on fluency-building activities at the word, phrase, and text levels.
- Which of the following is generally not considered when assessing whether a student’s performance is at level? State assessments, reading and spelling screeners, reading levels of leveled text, teacher reports.
Answer: Reading levels of leveled text.
LETRS Unit 4 Session 8 Answers
- Is it true that the “formula” for how much time to allocate to word work varies by grade level, and teachers should never deviate from the established formula for the grade they teach?
- Is it true that most students can easily adapt if they need to switch between one program used for core instruction and another used for intervention?
- Approximately how much time should be spent on code-based or word work activities in first-grade language arts? 10-20%, 30-40%, 50-60%?
- Mrs. Montoya follows a routine for teaching a new letter to her kindergarteners: name it, say it, sound(s), skywrite it, and discuss words that start with it. Which word best describes this practice? Explicit, systematic, sequential, linguistic?
- Which is the best example of instruction that is sequential? (a) Teaching how a word’s spelling is based on its language of origin, (b) Teaching class procedures for partner reading and independent reading, (c) Directly teaching the sound-spelling patterns for hard and soft “c” and “g,” and explaining that the soft “g” pattern has more exceptions, (d) Teaching the concept of vowel teams, then teaching these long “a” vowel teams?
Answer: Teaching the concept of vowel teams, then teaching these long “a” vowel teams.
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