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At the start of Volume 1 (Units 1-4), a pretest is given to document the individual’s knowledge. The Volume 1 pretest consists of 45 questions. Since the pretests are not timed, individuals can reference their notes or manual for assistance. At the end of each volume, users can measure how much their knowledge has grown since starting. However, there is no opportunity to retake a pretest.
Which statement best describes the relationship between reading comprehension and word decoding in a beginning reader’s development?
accurate, fast word recognition is necessary for development of reading fluency and text comprehension
Near the close of the day, a kindergarten teacher guides the students in conversation about the day’s activities. She writes down what is said on large chart paper, then reads it to the class. This activity would aid their literacy development primarily by promoting which skill?
What is the most important implication of the Four-Part Processing Model for Word Recognition?
reading depends on constructing pathways between the phonological, orthographic, and meaning processors
After results of a winter screening, six second-graders scored in the “somewhat at risk” range. What is the next step the teacher team should take?
analyze the screening results and gather additional diagnostic assessment data
How is the word sn-ow divided?
How many spoken syllables are in the word frightening?
How many spoken syllables are in the word cleaned?
What is the main reason that the ability to identify, segment, blend, and manipulate individual phonemes in spoken words is important for reading an alphabetic writing system?
the skill ultimately supports the ability to read words “by sight”
Students with relative weaknesses in basic phonemic awareness are most likely to make progress if the teacher provides which practice?
asks students to look into a mirror while they describe the way that target phonemes are formed in the mouth
Which student is demonstrating the most advanced level of phonemic awareness?
the student substituting a sound in a given word and saying the new word
A student spells skin as sgin. What type of phonological error did she make?
substitution of a voiced for an unvoiced consonant
Having students listen to a word, say it, and then mentally reverse the sounds in the word is an instructional activity that would be most appropriate for which students?
those who have mastered basic phonemic awareness
How can phonics instruction be organized to be most effective?
around a preplanned progression through a logical scope and sequence
Which word group might a teacher include in a lesson focused on identification of consonant blends?
plan, squirm, train
Which word group might a teacher include in a lesson focused on reviewing consonant digraphs?
phone, throne, shown
In the early alphabetic phase of word-reading development, students know some letter-sound correspondences and most letter names. A student at this level is most likely to progress with what type of instruction?
blending 2-3 phoneme-grapheme correspondences within simple, one-syllable words
Of all the phonic correspondences represented in these words, which pattern is likely to be learned after the others?
Which of the following tasks would best provide practice for automating letter recognition in kindergarten?
naming uppercase and lowercase printed letters in random order
Choose the best key word for introduction of short e (/ĕ/).
Which of the following is the best example of a well-designed word list for a word chaining activity?
rat, chat, chap, chip, rip, rap
A teacher has posted a word wall in first grade, using alphabetic order to list the words the students must learn. For example, under T are the words to, too, them, the, this, and then. How could the teacher best ensure that students will recognize and spell these words?
by removing regularly spelled “th” words and teaching them through sound blending.
A good phonics lesson should include opportunities for students to apply the phoneme-grapheme relationships that have been explicitly taught. Which text type would best provide the practice needed?
In which word does the grapheme representing /k/ indicate that the word is probably from Greek?
Which of the following words is most probably “Latin-based”?
Which of the following is a feature of English spelling?
words never end in the letters j or v.
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word wife, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word dodged, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word void, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word stream, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word blaming, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
In phoneme-grapheme mapping, students first segment and mark boxes for the phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If students were mapping the graphemes in the word thrill, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?
Which three letters could signal that c is pronounced /s/?
i, e, y
The /k/ sound in lake and lack is spelled differently. Why do we use the ck spelling in lack?
it follows a single short vowel at the end of a stressed syllable.
Which of the following two-syllable words contains an open syllable and a closed syllable?
Which of the following two-syllable words contains a vowel team syllable and a syllable with a vowel-r pattern?
A second-grade student writes: “I have finely finished my math project.” Her misspelling of the word finally most likely indicates which of the following?
she needs to know how the meaningful parts (morphemes) distinguish a word
Which word might be found in a lesson on adjective suffixes?
How can a teacher explain to students why there is a double n in beginning?
the base word ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, and the suffix begins with a vowel.
Which of the following misspelled words would be considered to be a morphological spelling error?
“playd” for played
Which of the following is a phonologically based spelling error?
“paz” for praise
The best definition for reading fluency is which of the following?
oral reading with accuracy, expression, and sufficient speed to support comprehension
To support students’ automatic word recognition, a first-grade teacher should first teach students which strategy?
how to apply their knowledge of consistent phonics patterns in controlled text
If a second-grader lacks fluency when reading aloud, what is the language skill that the teacher should assess first?
phonology and decoding
If a midyear first-grader reaches benchmark on screening for correct letter sounds, but does not read any whole words accurately when asked to read simple nonsense syllables, what type of instruction should this student receive?
instruction in fluent phoneme blending
Which of these students has the greatest need for intervention focused on systematic, explicit phonics instruction?
a second-grader who relies on context clues to identify words but has trouble sounding out unfamiliar words, including nonsense words
- Lexia LETRS
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