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What is Poor Personal Hygiene
•Improper hand washing • Bare hand contact with ready-to-eat (RTE) foods • Food handlers working while ill with the following symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat with a fever, infected cuts on the hands, and jaundice
What is Food from unsafe sources
• Food from an unapproved source and/or prepared in unpermitted locations • Receiving adulterated food
What is Improper Cooking Temperatures/Methods
• Cooking • Reheating • Freezing (kill step to eliminate parasites in fish)
What is Improper Holding, Time and Temperature
• Improper hot and cold holding of TCS foods • Improper use of time as a control • Improper cooling of TCS foods
What is Food Contamination
• Use of contaminated/improperly constructed equipment • Poor employee practices • Improper food storage/preparation • Exposure to chemicals
What is a Biological Food Hazard
• Microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness • Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi
What is a Chemical Food Hazard
• Chemicals not meant to be consumed • Sanitizers, cleaning agents, or pest control products must be separated from food
What is a Physical Food Hazard
• Foreign objects that can cause injury • Glass, metal, or bone
PROPER HANDWASHING TECHNIQUE AREA
Wash your hands in a DESIGNATED HAND WASHING SINK for hand washing ONLY and should have liquid soap, paper towels, and a trash can
PROPER HANDWASHING TECHNIQUE STEPS
1. WET HANDS (with warm water) MIN 100 ° F 2. SOAP 3. RUB VIGOROUSLY (for 15 seconds) 4. RINSE 5. DRY 6. TURN OFF WATER (with paper towel)
When should you WASH YOUR HANDS…
When entering the kitchen After touching your face, hair, or skin After using the restroom After handling raw animal products After taking out the trash or cleaning After handling ANYTHING dirty
If you have a cut on your hand…
•Wash your hands •Put on clean bandage •Wear gloves
If you cannot wash your hands because of a splint, wound, bandage, or brace…
YOU CANNOT WORK WITH FOOD
What should you do with READY TO EAT FOODS
NO BARE HAND CONTACT WITH READY TO EAT FOODS and Use a physical barrier to prevent contamination from germs that have the potential to cause foodborne illness
What are READY TO EAT FOODS
Cooked food, raw fruits and vegetables, baked goods, snack foods, and ice.
What are the physical barriers for READY TO EAT FOODS
Deli/wax paper, gloves, and utensils such as tongs, scoops, and spatulas.
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for hair
Proper Hair Restraint ✔️ Hair coming outside the cap🚫
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for clothes
Neat and Clean Clothes✔️ Dirty clothes🚫
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for wounds
All wounds covered✔️ Open and bleeding wounds🚫
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for wrist jewelry
No wrist jewelry✔️ Wrist jewelry🚫
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for ring jewelry
Plain band ring✔️ Ornate or jeweled ring🚫
What is the proper/improper UNIFORM for nails
Short and clean nails✔️ Long, painted, and/or artificial nails🚫
Where does Personal Hygiene start
At home when you get ready for work each day because All of us carry disease causing germs that can cause illness
As a food handler who is responsible for your own health
YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE for caring for your own health to prevent foodborne illness.
What should you tell your employer about diagnosis
Tell your employer if you have been diagnosed with Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli O157:H7, Hepatitis A, or Norovirus.
What symptoms must you tell your employer about
•Diarrhea •Vomiting •Sore throat with a fever • Infected cuts or wounds • Jaundice
An easy way to remember the 5 foodborne illnesses:
Send•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Salmonela Sick•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Shigella Employees••••••••••••••••••••••••E. Coli Home••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Hepatitis A Now••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Norovirus
When can you work after experiencing symptoms
YOU CANNOT WORK AGAIN UNTIL SYMPTOM-FREE FOR 24 HOURS WITHOUT THE USE OF MEDICINE
After you accept food deliveries what can you not do
You cannot make unsafe food safe once again
Time and Temperature Control for Safety
TCS foods also known as, POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS.
What do TCS foods, also known as potentially hazardous foods (PHF), require
They require time and temperature control to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation.
What is an approved source
A reputable supplier that has been inspected and follows regulations
What should you always do before you accept food from a supplier
You should always check food before you accept it from the supplier
You should REJECT FOOD from a supplier IF…
IT DOES NOT MEET STANDARDS RATHER THAN ACCEPTING IT FROM THE SUPPLIER.
You should check TCS foods temperature for…
•Hot foods hot (above 135°F) •DANGER ZONE:Between 41°F and 135°F •It is acceptable to receive eggs, milk, and live shellstock at 45°F •41°F OR BELOW:Cold foods cold (below 41°F) Frozen foods should be frozen solid
What is the temperature for HOT FOODS
Hot foods hot (above 135°F)
What is the DANGER ZONE temperature
41°F to 135°F
What temperature is acceptable to receive EGGS, MILK, LIVE SHELLSTOCK
Acceptable to receive at 45°F
What is the temperature for COLD FOODS
41°F or below Frozen foods should be FROZEN SOLID
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about overall wholesomeness
Reject cans that are dented, swollen, or leaking.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about frozen foods
Reject frozen foods that have ice crystals or liquid in the package.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about overall Spoilage
Foods should NOT be slimy, sticky, off-color, or have a bad odor.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about overall Expiration dates
Foods should be within the use-by date marked from the manufacture.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about signs of contamination by pests or spills
Packages should be clean, dry, and intact.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about Proper labeling and invoices
Food must be identified as to what it is and where it came from.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about shellstock tags
Shellfish tags must be kept on file for 90 days.
What are the things you are checking for when you are concerned about parasite destruction for some fish
Fish served under cooked or raw must have documents from the supplier explaining how the fish is frozen or raised.
What must you store TCS foods at
Correct temperatures for safety
What is the hot holding zone for Holding Temperatures
135°F and above for no growth
What is Proper Thawing
to maintain foods 41°F or below when thawing
What should you do for the Approved thawing method of Under Refrigeration
Plan ahead — large items may take several days to thaw. Maintain refrigeration at 41°F or less.
What should you do for the Approved thawing method of As part of Cooking
Take directly from frozen to cooking. This is great for foods that are small.
What should you do for the Approved thawing method of in microwave
Transfer immediately to a conventional cooking process or cook completely in the microwave.
What should you do for the Approved thawing method of Fully Submerged Under Cold Running Water
Ensure running water flows fast enough to remove and float off loose particles. Ensure all portions of food are fully submerged under water. Running water should be cold; food should not rise above 41°F.
What is the only way to reduce germs when cooking TCS foods
Cooking TCS foods to their required temperatures is the only way to reduce the amount of germs to safe levels.
What should you use to check food temperatures
Use a calibrated and sanitized stem thermometer to check food temperatures.
Where should you insert thermometer
into the thickest part of the food away from bones to be sure all parts of the food are cooked thoroughly.
What are the Foodborne Illness Risk Factors
Poor Personal Hygiene, Food From Unsafe Sources, Improper Cooking Temperatures/Methods, Improper Holding, Time and Temperature, and Food Contamination
What are Food Hazards
Biological, Chemical, and Physical
During receiving you should check foods for
Temperatures, Wholesomeness, Frozen, Spoilage, Expiration dates, Contamination from pests or spills, Proper labeling and Invoices, shellstock tags, and Parasite Destruction for some fish
What is the cold holding zone for Holding Temperatures
41°F or below for slow growth
What is the danger zone for Holding Temperatures
41°F to 135°F where bacteria grows and multiplys
What are the Approved thawing methods
Refrigeration, as part of cooking, in microwave, and fully submerged under cold water
When can raw TCS foods be undercooked
IF THE CUSTOMER ORDERS IT THAT WAY AND THERE IS A CONSUMER ADVISORY ON THE MENU.
How long do you have to reheat manufactured and made in house TCS foods for hot holding
Within two hours for Hot holding
What is the two-stage cooling process required for hot TCS foods
135°F to 70°F in two hours and 70°F to 41°F in next four hours (not to exceed six hours total)
Why is Cooling foods quickly and safely so important
To ensure foods spend a minimum amount of time in the temperature danger zone.
What methods will speed up the cooling process
using an ice bath or dividing hot foods into shallow pans and then placing them into a refrigerator. Stir food regularly to allow heat to escape
What is the most important tool you have to ensure food safety
When should you calibrate a thermometer
Regularly, as well as when it is new, and any time the thermometer is dropped
What are the STEPS FOR PROPER CALIBRATION OF STEM THERMOMETER
1. Completely fill a container with ice. 2. Add clean water (ice should not float). 3. Immerse thermometer. 4. Stir well. 5. Allow 30 seconds before adjusting to 32°F.
When does cross contamination occur
When germs are moved from one food or surface to another
What have Foodborne illness resulted from
• Adding contaminated ingredients to food. • Food contact surfaces (equipment and utensils) that were not properly cleaned and sanitized. • Allowing raw food to touch or drip on ready-to-eat food. • Hands that touch contaminated food then ready-to-eat food.
You can Avoid other cross contamination by
• Using separate cutting boards and utensils for raw products (such as shell eggs, meat, fish, poultry) and ready-to-eat food or cleaning and sanitizing equipment in between uses. • Separating dirty equipment from food or clean equipment. • Starting with a clean, sanitized work surface and cleaning and sanitizing all work surfaces, equipment, and utensils after each task. • Not storing anything in ice that will be consumed.
How can you make sure equipment is clean and sanitized
By washing as often as necessary. When in use, clean and sanitize utensils and equipment every four hours
What are the types of approved sanitizers
Chlorine and Quaternary Ammonia (Quats)
What should you do with SANITIZER BUCKETS
Follow manufacturer recommendations for proper concentration and contact time. Test the sanitizer with paper test strips to check the concentration. Keep a cloth stored in a sanitizer bucket anytime there is food service or preparation.
How should you maintain a three-compartment sink
Always use a properly set up three-compartment kitchen sink for proper manual warewashing and follow the five steps: pre-wash (scrape), wash, rinse, sanitize, and air dry.
What is sanitizing and what’s used on food contact surfaces
Sanitizing is reducing the number of germs to safe levels. Chemicals and heat are used to sanitize food contact surfaces
What temperature should the machine reach for food contact surfaces
Surface temperature of food contact surfaces in a high temperature machine must reach at least 160°F.
How should you wash produce to prevent contamination
Wash fruits and vegetables under running water before cutting, combining with other ingredients, or cooking. Pests and dirt can hide in the inner leaves of produce. Remove outer leaves and pull lettuce and spinach completely apart. Rinse thoroughly. Cut away bruised or damaged areas when preparing fruit and vegetables
How should you store utensils to prevent contamination
Store utensils in the following manner: • With handles pointing in the same direction. • On a smooth, easily cleanable food contact surface • In water that is 41°F or below, 135°F or above • Under running water
What are ways to prevent pest contamination
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a series of prevention methods used to keep pests away and to control infestation: • Deny access, food, and shelter. • Work with a licensed pest control operator. • Seal all gaps and openings in floors, walls, and ceiling. • Keep doors, screens, and windows closed to keep pests out. • Keep air curtains operational
What are the signs of a pest infestation
Signs of a pest infestation include: • Seeing pests in various sizes and stages of development. • Pest activity noted on a report from a licensed pest control operator. • Finding rodent droppings on floors or equipment or cockroach feces (small black specks) on walls and floors. • Bite marks on food containers
What must you do if a single rodent is in the facility
A single rodent in a facility requires immediate pest control consultation. Do not use pesticides labeled as “household use only.” Only a licensed pest control operator can apply restricted-use pesticides.
What are the Rules regarding smoking, eating, and drinking in the kitchen
• Prohibit eating, smoking, and drinking while preparing or serving food, while in areas used for preparing or serving food, or while in areas used for washing equipment and utensils. • Eating and smoking are only permitted in designated areas away from food or ware washing areas. • Smoking areas must be compliant with the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act
What are key components of preventing foodborne illness
Proper food storage and preparation. Store and prepare foods to protect them from cross contamination
What should be done when refrigerating prepared foods
All prepared foods should be covered, labeled, and dated when placed in storage
When refrigerating TCS foods prepared in the facility, they must be
Dated and used within seven days
During refrigerating storage, where should you use a thermometer
In the warmest part of the unit.
During refrigerating storage, how far from the floor should the food be stored
At least six inches above the floor.
During refrigerating storage, what will help keep food safe
Keeping foods covered, storing raw animal products below and away from ready-to-eat foods, using clean and sanitized equipment /utensils, and enforcing overall good employee practices will help keep food safe
Time Temperature Control for Safety
Potentially Hazardous Foods
Above 135 Degrees F
Below 41 Degrees F
41F – 135F
Eggs, Milk, and Live shellstock
hot TCS foods:Poultry: chicken, duck, turkey
A two-stage cooling process is required
Cockroaches, rats, and flies
You should let your employer know if you experienced any of these 5 symptoms:
1. Salmonella 2. Shigella 3. E. Coli 4. Hepatitis A 5. Norovirus
You cannot work until you are symptom-free for __ hours without the use of medicine?
Acceptable to receive eggs, milk, and live shellstock at __ degree
45 degree F
Shellfish tags must be kept on file for __ days
What is the “Hot Holding Zone’ temperature?
135 degrees F above (no bacteria growth)
What is the “Danger Zone” temperature?
Between 41 – 135 degrees F (Bacteria grow and multiply)
What is the “Cold Holding Zone” temperature?
41 degrees F or below (Slow bacteria growth)
It is important to maintain foods __ degrees or below when thawing (defrosting)
41 degrees or below
To thaw via refrigeration, maintain refrigeration at __ degrees or less?
What is the process to thaw as a part of cooking?
Take directly from frozen to cooking (great for small foods)
What is the process to thaw in a microwave?
Transfer immediately to a conventional cooking process or cook completely in the microwave
What is the process to thaw via a “Fully submerged under cold running water”?
Ensure running water flows fast enough to remove and float off loose particles. Ensure all portions of food are fully submerged under water. Running water should be cold; food should not rise above 41 degrees F.
Cooking temperatures are held for how many seconds?
Minimum of 15 seconds
What cooking temperature is for the -Reheat of TCS foods made in house for hot holding within 2 hours -Poultry: chicken, duck, turkey -Stuffed foods
165 degrees F
What cooking temperature is for the -tenderized/injected and ground meats -raw shell eggs for hot holding
155 degrees F
What cooking temperature is for -whole muscle meat -fish and seafood -raw shell eggs for immediate service
145 degrees F
What cooking temperature is for -fruits, vegetables, and grains cooked for hot holding -reheat of manufactures TCS foods within 2 hours -hot holding
135 degrees F
What is the temperature for -cold holding -frozen food that must be maintained frozen solid?
below 41 degrees F
Roasts can be cooked to ___ degrees F for ___ minutes or per roast cook chart?
130 degree F for 112 minutes
What is the 2-stage cooling process required for TCS foods?
135 to 70 in two hours and 470 to 41 in the next four hours *not to exceed 6 hours in total*
What instrument do you use to check food temperatures?
A calibrated, sanitized stem thermometer
What are the 5 steps for proper calibration of stem thermometer?
1. Completely fill a container with ice. 2. Add clean water (ice should not float) 3. Immerse thermometer 4. Stir well 5. Allow 30 seconds before adjusting to 32 degrees F.
What are the two types of approved sanitizer?
Chlorine and Quaternary Ammonia (Quats)
What are the 5 steps to proper manual warewashing?
1. Pre-wash (scrape) 2. Wash (in hot, soapy water at least 110 degrees F) 3. Rinse w/ clean water 4. Approved chemical sanitizer 5. Air dry
Surface temperature of food contact surfaces in a high temperature machine must reach at least ___ degrees F
What is the procedure for storing utensils?
-handles pointing in the same direction -on a smooth, easily cleanable food contact surface -in a water that is 41 degrees below or 135 degrees above -under running water
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
-Deny access, food, and shelter -Work with a licensed pest control operator Seal all gaps and opening in floors, walls, and ceilings -Keep doors, screens, and windows closed to keep pests out -Keep air curtains operational
TCS foods prepared in the facility must be dated and used within __ days?
Place thermometer in __ of the unit
Raw chicken, turkey, poultry, and stuffed foods must be stored at least how many inches about the floor?
Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Food
Food that is edible without additional preparation or cooking
Raw, in-shell molluscan shellstock such as clams, oysters, or mussels
Time and Temperature Control for Safety (TCS)
Food that requires time and temperature control for safety to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation, such as meat, fish, eggs and milk, and cut lettuce
Time as a Public Health Control
A procedure in which time is used to control the growth of germs or microorganisms. Food held using this procedure must be served, sold, or discarded after four hours.
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