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|How many Americans are affected by Foodborne Illness every year?
|What is the most important factor in food safety that health inspectors look for in the food industry? Why?
|Cleanliness because this tells us the safety hazards
|What is the PIC and what are they responsible for?
|Person in charge
|A. On-site at all times
|B. Must know food code and procedures
|C. Food training. Answer employee questions
|What are highly susceptible populations?
|Y. Younger than 5
|O. Older than 65
|P. Pregnant Women
|I. Immune Compromise
|When should you use extra caution due to people in the YOPI category?
|A. Undercooked Meats
|C. Undercooked Eggs
|E. Unpasteurized Milk or juices
|What is the most common contamination & where does it come from?
|Biological contamination comes from everywhere
|What should you do when you are sick?
|Don’t work with food. Stay home.
|What does the 24-hour rule say?
|Stay at home. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, fever with sore throat or cough, jaundice
|What are 5 good personal hygiene practices when working in food prep areas?
|A. Following hand washing rules
|B. Keep fingernails trimmed
|C. Use hair restraints when needed
|D. Wear proper work clothing
|E. Always cover cuts and burns
|When should you wash your hands?
|Throughout the day, before touching or preparing food, and after contamination from germs
|What are 8 sources of contamination?
|A. Using the bathroom
|B. Touching your face or nose
|C. Handling raw meat
|D. Sneezing or coughing
|E. Handling garbage or dishes
|F. Handling animals
|G. Using chemicals
|H. Taking a break
|What are the 6 steps to proper hand washing?
|A. Wet hands
|B. Apply soap and scrub
|C. Rub for 20 seconds
|D. Scrub backs of hands and between fingers
|E. Rinse hands
|F. Dry with a disposable towel or dryer
|When is sanitizer an acceptable replacement for hand washing?
|What can you use to avoid bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat foods?
|A. Tongs or utensils
|C. Deli Papers
|D. Single-Use gloves
|When using gloves, when should you wash your hands?
|Required to wash hands before and after
|What are ready-to-eat foods?
|Foods that aren’t washed or cooked again. Pastries, chips, fruits, and veggies eaten raw. Sandwiches, sushi, ice
|Can you eat or drink in a food prep area? Why?
|No, prevent spills and reduce contamination
|What temperature should you hold cold foods?
|41 degrees Fahrenheit or lower
|What temperature should you hold hot foods?
|135 degrees Fahrenheit or higher
|What is the danger zone?
|Between 41 and 135 degrees Fahrenheit where bacteria grows rapidly
|If food has been at room temperature for an unknown amount of time, what should you do?
|Throw it away
|How long can potentially hazardous food remain in the Danger Zone before it needs to be thrown out?
|Must not remain for more than 2 hours
|What is the proper temperature for bacon, ground beef, chicken?
|145 degrees Fahrenheit, 155 degrees Fahrenheit, 165 degrees Fahrenheit
|What are 4 acceptable ways to thaw food?
|In the refrigerator, under cold running water, in the microwave, or as part of the cooking process
|When cooling hot food, how long do you have to cool from 135 to 71 degrees?
|When cooling hot food, how long do you have to cool from 71 to 41 degrees?
|What is cross-contamination?
|Spread of bacteria from raw meat to other foods
|How does cross-contamination occur?
|It happens when blood or juice from raw meat gets onto a counter, cutting board, utensils, or hands
|How can cooked food become contaminated?
|Bacteria that is present can spread to other food
|Where should you store raw foods?
|On shelves below ready-to-eat foods to minimize contamination
|What are 4 safety steps to avoid cross-contamination?
|A. Wash your hands after handling raw meat
|B. Never put cooked food near raw meat
|C. Food services must be washed and sanitized
|D. Store raw foods in the ready-to-eat section
|What is the difference between cleaning and sanitizing?
|Cleaning – uses soap and water to remove food and dirt. Sanitizing – uses chemicals or heat to kill germs
|Food services should be…
|Washed, rinsed, and sanitized after each use
|Proper steps to wash dishes –
|A. Clean and sanitize the sink
|B. Scrape extra food into the garbage
|C. Wash dishes in hot soapy water
|D. Rinse dishes with clean hot water
|E. Sanitize with an approved sanitizer
|How should sanitizer chemicals be used?
|Wash, rinse, sanitize. Follow labels and directions; according to the sanitizer label instructions
|Never touch the surface of…
|The dish that will touch a person’s mouth
|When in doubt…
Oregon Food Handler’s Permit Test Answers
|Symptoms of foodborne illness
|The different types of hazards that can make food dangerous
|Different kinds of germs can make people sick. Bacteria are one kind of germ. They grow fast and they may cause foodborne illness. Some bacteria make toxins that act like a poison. Cooking does not destroy most of these toxins. Almost always, the food looks and smells good, but it may have enough bacteria or toxin to make someone sick. Toxins can occur in many foods that have not been kept cold enough or hot enough.
|Some common bacteria types
|Type of bacteria. Often associated with undercooked chicken and eggs. Causes stomach pain, diarrhea, chills, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
|Type of bacteria. Often associated with undercooked beef or improperly washed produce. Causes severe cramping, diarrhea, and may lead to kidney failure.
|Type of bacteria. Carried on hands, face, and in noses of most people and spread by poor handwashing. Causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cold sweats.
|A virus is another kind of germ that causes illness when it gets into the food. You can have a virus and not know it. Even before you start feeling sick, you may be passing viruses into the food by not washing your hands after coughing, sneezing, or using the toilet. This is why good handwashing is so important.
|Some common viruses
– Hepatitis A
|Type of virus. Spread by poor handwashing and touching ready-to-eat foods. Causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
|Type of virus. Spread by poor handwashing after hands have been contaminated by feces. Causes fever, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, cramping, and jaundice.
|Tiny worms that live in fish and meat are called parasites. Cooking fish and meat to the right temperature will kill parasites.
|People can also get sick when chemicals get into the food. Be sure to keep chemicals away from food.
|Physical contamination is when outside objects are accidentally introduced into food. Food items may arrive already contaminated with dirt and pebbles or be contaminated inside a restaurant from broken glass or when old cooking equipment is flaking.
|True or false: Food can make us sick when it has germs growing in it, or it has been contaminated by chemicals or dangerous objects
|True or false: You cannot tell if food is contaminated by smelling, tasting or looking at it. When in doubt – throw it out.
|True or false: Food that is contaminated often looks, smells and tastes like safe food
|The five major mistakes that often cause foodborne illness are
|– Bad or no handwashing<br>- Employees working while they are ill or sick<br>- Cross-contamination, spreading germs<br>- Not cooking food to the right temperature<br>- Inadequate temperature control
|It is your job to prevent foodborne illness by
|– Washing your hands well and wash them often – every time hands may have become contaminated<br>- Not working when you are sick<br>- Storing and handling foods safely to prevent contamination<br>- Cooking foods to required internal temperatures<br>- Maintaining hot and cold temperatures
|Rules regarding smoking
|Do not smoke or chew tobacco while you are working or when you are near food or dishwashing areas. Smoke only while you are on a break. After you smoke, double wash your hands before you return to work.
|Rules regarding eating
|Do not eat where food equipment is being kept or food is being prepared
|Rules regarding drinking
|When you are thirsty while working, you may drink from a closed beverage cup with a lid and straw or a cup with a lid and handle
|Things to remember regarding role in preventing foodborne illness
|– Working in a restaurant means you have a responsibility to keep your customers, coworkers, and yourself safe and healthy<br>- Do not work while you are sick<br>- Wash your hands well and wash often<br>- Keep foods out of the danger zone<br>- Know and follow the special rules for food workers about smoking, eating, and drinking
|Can anyone who can demonstrate food safety knowledge and is given the authority to oversee other employees?
|The person in charge is responsible for
|– Knowing the food sanitation rules and the procedures within your establishment<br>- Providing you with information you need to perform your job<br>- Ensuring all employees preparing and serving food are healthy<br>- Setting the tone for what food safety activities occur or don’t occur within the facility<br>- Training and ensuring that food handlers practice activities that prevent foodborne illness
|Things to remember regarding the person in charge
|– There must always be a person in charge (PIC) at the restaurant<br>- The person in charge is responsible for ensuring all food workers are healthy<br>- The person in charge is responsible for training and ensuring everyone practices good food safety
|How to wash hands
|– Use running warm water and soap<br>- Scrub hands and rinse thoroughly (20 seconds)<br>- Dry hands with a single-use towel or air dryer<br>- Do not dry your hands on your apron or wiping cloths
|When to wash hands
|– Before starting work
– After using the toilet and again when entering the work area
– After handling raw food and raw animal products
– After handling dirty dishes
– After handling garbage
– After cleaning or using chemicals
– After blowing nose, sneezing, coughing, or touching eyes, nose or mouth
– After smoking or using tobacco products
– After eating or drinking
– Before putting on food service gloves
|Double hand washing is required when
|– When you start work or return to your work area after leaving
– After using the restroom. Always wash hands after using the restroom and wash hands again when returning to your work area (kitchen, bar, wait station).
– If you come into contact with any bodily fluids (coughing or sneezing into your hands, smoking or eating)
|Gloves and hand washing
|Gloves and other barriers do not replace handwashing. Wash your hands before putting gloves on and when changing to a new pair. Wash your hands and change gloves:
– As soon as they become soiled or torn
– Before beginning a different task
– After handling raw meats, fish, or poultry
– Before handling ready-to-eat food
|Cuts and sores
|Do not work with foods if you have an infected wound (cut, burn, or sore) on your hand. If the wound is not infected, you may use a band-aid and wear disposable gloves to cover the wound.
|Things to remember about hand washing
|– Wash your hands and wash them often
– Wash your hands with soap and warm water for 20 seconds
– Double wash your hands when you start work or return to your work area, after using the restroom, and after touching bodily fluids
– Gloves do not replace handwashing, you still need to wash your hands
|Never work when you have
– Jaundice (your skin turns a yellow color)
– Fever with a sore throat
|If you’re sick, you must
|– Let your boss or the person in charge know that you are ill and cannot work<br>- Not work in food service for 24 hours after the last instance of diarrhea or vomiting has stopped.
|Employee illness and sores and cuts
|Do not handle food with an infected boil, cut, burn, or sore on the hand or wrist. Food may be handled if the injury is not infected and is covered with a clean bandage and a latex-free glove.
|Remember regarding employee illness
|– Never work when you have diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, or fever with a sore throat
– If you are sick, do not work in food service for 24 hours after the last instance of diarrhea or vomiting has stopped.
– If you are sick, tell your boss or the person in charge
|When does cross contamination occur
|When germs from raw or unclean food get into foods that are ready to serve or that will not be cooked before serving
|Six ways to prevent cross contamination
|Storing food safely, Keeping your restaurant free of pests, Keeping food and chemicals separate, Handling food safely, Using gloves safely, Washing and Sanitizing
|Storing food safely
|– Store raw meat, fish, poultry, and eggs on the lower shelves of the refrigerator with the meats that have to be cooked the hottest on the lowest shelves
– Don’t store raw meats (beef, pork, lamb, fish, poultry, or eggs) above foods that will not be cooked before serving
– Keep different types of raw meat separate from each other
– Store unwashed food or raw food away from ready-to-eat food
– Wash your hands between handling raw meat and foods that will not be cooked before eating
– Store foods in containers made of food-grade materials
– Never reuse chemical containers to store food
|Keeping restaurant pet-free
|– Clean the building often on a regular schedule
– Keep doors and windows closed or screened
– Cover small holes where mice and rats can get in
– Cover garbage with lids that fit well and remove garbage often
– Keep the areas around garbage containers clear of trash
|Prior to using pesticides, do this
|Before using pesticides, put away all food and cover work surfaces. Be sure the pesticides you use are approved for use in food establishments.
|Chemicals in a restaurant
|Working in a restaurant means
you will use chemicals like bleach or other sanitizers. It is
important to follow these rules to keep food safe from
– Know what the directions say for using chemicals. Read
the labels and talk to your manager about when to use them
and how much to use.
– Keep chemicals away from food and clean utensils. If
chemicals must be stored in the same room, be sure they
are stored in their own area. The area should be below food and utensils, so there is no chance of chemicals splashing or dripping onto the food and utensils.
– If you put them in a different container, label them clearly.
– Food Additives. Chemicals you add to food as you prepare it are called food additives. Some additives are used to freshen or whiten food. Additives containing sulfites are not allowed to be used in restaurants. Some people are very allergic to sulfites. Food allergies may cause severe illness or death.
|Handling food safely
|Handling food safely means that when
you are preparing or handling food, you are not contaminating
it with germs. Follow these tips to handle food safely:
Wash your hands before working with food and before
Use utensils or disposable gloves to work with ready-to-eat
Wash, rinse and sanitize food preparation sinks,
preparation surfaces, cutting surfaces and all the utensils
and knives every time you finish with a job or between
preparing different foods.
Keep serving utensils in the food with the handle sticking
out of the food. Utensils may also be kept in an ice water
bath, cold running water bath, or water that is kept at 135°F
or above. Never leave utensils in room-temperature
Use ice scoops with handles or use tongs to place ice in
cups. Do not use a cup or glass to scoop ice. The sides of
the cup may get dirty from handling or the glass may
shatter or chip in the ice.
Do not re-serve unpackaged foods (tortilla chips, bread,
rolls etc.) even if they were untouched.
Wiping cloths must be stored in a sanitizer solution (1
teaspoon of bleach per gallon of water).
If foods become contaminated, it is best to discard the food.
(example: if raw meat dripped onto lettuce for salads, do
not wipe or wash away the meat juice, throw the lettuce away)
|Washing and sanitizing
|It takes more than soap and water to keep a food business clean and safe. In restaurants an extra step called sanitizing is required when dishwashing and cleaning equipment that touches food. Sanitizing kills the germs found on dirty dishes and equipment.
|How to wash dishes
|1. Scrape and/or pre-rinse food from the dishes and utensils.
2. Wash with detergent and hot water in the first sink.
3. Rinse with clean, hot water to remove any soap or food in the middle sink.
4. Sanitize, in the third sink, by immersing for a half minute to kill harmful bacteria. Too much bleach is not good. Use
test papers to test the strength of the solution. If the test
indicates less than 50 ppm, make a new solution. Other
chemical sanitizers may be used if they are approved by the Health Department.
5. Air dry the dishes and utensils. Do not wipe with towels.
Towels can spread germs, and the sanitizing process is
When mixing sanitizer solution, use test papers to make sure you are mixing the proper concentration: 50-100 ppm Chlorine (1 teaspoon bleach to 1 gallon water)
When using “Quats” (Quaternary Ammonium Compounds) for sanitizing, follow the label directions carefully. Using too much can leave a residue behind that can cause illness.
|Using a dishwasher
|Chemical dishwasher: Use test papers on the final rinse to
ensure that the machine is sanitizing the dishes.
Hot water dishwasher: Use a thermometer to make sure
the final rinse is reaching 165°F for stationary rack
machines and 180°F for other machines.
|Using gloves safely
|Gloves are a good way to avoid touching
ready-to-eat foods with your bare hands. It is important to
remember that gloves carry germs on them just like hands.
Change your gloves:
Between different tasks
After handling raw meat
Before touching ready-to-eat foods
As soon as they become ripped or torn
After touching your face or hair
Wearing gloves does not replace handwashing. Always
wash your hands before and after wearing gloves.
|Remember regarding cross contamination
|Store food safely by making sure raw meats are separate
and do not touch each other
Keep chemicals away from food
Handle food safely by washing your hands after working
with raw food, before working with ready-to-eat foods and
Wearing gloves does not replace handwashing
Wash, rinse and sanitizing equipment between uses
keeping wiping cloths in sanitizer solution (1 teaspoon
bleach per gallon of water)
When washing dishes by hand remember the steps: scrape,
wash, rinse, sanitize, air dry
When using bleach as a sanitizer, mix one teaspoon bleach
per gallon of water
Always use test papers to make sure sanitizer solution is
the proper concentration
Keep your restaurant free of pests
Do not spray pesticides or pest chemicals while the kitchen
is preparing food
|The danger zone
|41º F and 135º F
|Potentially hazardous foods
|Potentially hazardous foods are foods that can make you sick if not kept at the right temperature. These include:
Beef, chicken, pork, fish and seafood
Cooked pasta, cooked rice and cooked vegetables
Cut melon, lettuce and tomatoes
Milk, dairy products and eggs
|Keeping foods cold
|Always keep cold food at 41o
F or colder. Fish, shellfish, poultry, milk and red meat will stay fresh longer if you hold them cold at 41o F or colder. Cover foods being stored on the top section of
a refrigerated preparation unit.
|Keeping foods hot
|After the food is cooked and ready to serve, you will need to keep it warm enough to stop any germs from growing. You must turn on steam tables, soup warmers and heated surfaces before you need them so that they will be hot enough when you put the cooked food into
them. Keep hot food at 135oF or hotter. Stir food to help keep the food on top hot. Check the temperature often to ensure it is staying hot.
|Tips on using a Food Thermometer
|Use a thermometer with a smaller
diameter probe on thin foods such as thin
Check the internal temperature of the food
toward the end of the cooking time
Place the thermometer in the thickest part of the meat or in
the center of the food to get a true reading. (Do not touch
the bone with the stem of the thermometer, that makes a
When taking temperatures of a large amount of food like a
big piece of meat, be sure to take the temperature in two or
Compare your thermometer reading to the Required
Cooking Temperatures on the back cover to determine if
your food has reached a safe temperature
Wash and sanitize the thermometer each time you check
the temperature of a food
|Calibrating a Dial Food Thermometer
|When you use a dial food thermometer, you need to make sure the temperature it gives you is accurate. An easy way to do this is to use ice and water.
1) Pack a large cup to the top with crushed ice and water.
2) Put the thermometer at least 2 inches into the ice water. After 30 seconds, read the dial. It should read 32o F.
3) If it does not read 32o
F after 30 seconds, you need to:
Leave it in the ice slurry. Add ice as it melts
Use pliers or a wrench and turn the nut on the back of
the thermometer until the needle reads 32oF
Wait 30 seconds. Keep repeating these steps until the
thermometer reads 32oF
|When do we enter the danger zone
|when we thaw, cook, cool and reheat foods
|Approved ways of thawing frozen foods
|– Thaw food in the refrigerator; it may take a few hours or up to a few days. This is the best and safest way. Be sure to put meat in a container to catch meat juices and keep them from dripping.
– Put food under cold running water. Do not use warm or hot water.
– Defrost in a microwave oven. You must then cook and serve it right away
|Cooling hot foods timeline
|135ºF to 70ºF within two hours and then from, 70ºF to 41ºF within four more hours
|Cooling solid foods
|Cut large roasts and turkeys into smaller portions. This will help them to cool faster
Put all meats and other hot food in the refrigerator uncovered
|Cooling soft or thick foods
|Whenever possible, use a flat sheet pan and spread the food out as shallow as you can to speed up the cooling. When cooling food in shallow metal pans, be sure to:
Pour hot food into shallow metal pans. The shallower the pan, the faster the food will cool.
Stir foods often, this will speed up cooling time. Once food cools to 41ºF, you can place food in a larger container and cover it.
|Air in the refrigerator must be able to move around the food. The pans and dishes need to have space between them; do not crowd them. Do not stack pans on each other. Do not cover the food while it is cooling. A cover may be put on after the food has fully cooled.
|Cooling liquid foods
|You can use shallow metal pans or
you can use the ice and water bath to cool thin soups and
sauces. To cool food using an ice bath, follow these steps:
1) Close the drain in a large sink. Place the metal pot or pan of hot food in the sink.
2) Fill the sink with ice and cold water up to the level of food in the pot or pan.
3) Stir the soup or sauce often so that it cools all the way to the center. Ice paddles or cooling wands can be used to
speed up the cooling process.
4) Add more ice as ice melts.
5) Do not move the food to storage until it reaches 41oF or below.
|Always reheat foods thoroughly to at least 165F.
Re-heating food must take less than 2 hours to get foods from 41 degrees F to 135 degrees F (through the temperature danger zone). Use stove burners, convection ovens, microwave ovens, or double boilers to heat food. Hot holding units such as steam tables and soup warmers are not designed to heat foods up, only to keep them hot once they have been heated. Stir food to be sure all parts have been properly heated.
|Remember regarding temperature control
|Potentially hazardous food must stay out of the danger zone
Potentially hazardous foods are foods that can grow germs if they aren’t kept at the right temperature
The danger zone is 41degrees F – 135 degrees F
Cold foods must be kept at or below 41 degrees F
Hot foods must be kept above 135 degrees F
Never leave potentially hazardous foods at room
When cooling food, it must drop from: 135 degrees
F to 70 degrees F within two hours and then from,
70 degrees F to 41 degrees F within four more hours.
Do not use equipment designed to hold hot foods like
steam tables and soup warmers to reheat foods
|Rare roast beef
|130ºF for over 2 hours
|Eggs, fish, etc.
|Pork and pork products
|Ground beef (hamburger), ground fish (fish cakes)
|Poultry (chicken, turkey, etc.), stuffed meats, stuffing containing meat or meat juices
|Remember regarding final cooking temperature
|Cooking food destroys bacteria and other germs in raw
Different foods have different temperatures they have to
reach to be done
When checking if food is done cooking, always take an
internal temperature using a thermometer
|Give 5 back blows
Give 5 abdominal thrusts
Repeat steps 1 and 2 until object is forced out, personal can cough forcefully/breath, and/or person becomes unconscious
Then, if person is unconscious, lower them to the ground and perform CPR
Call 9-1-1 if needed
|Bacteria are germs with only one cell that can
multiply into large numbers when food is in the danger zone for more than 4 hours.
|Bare Hand Contact Prohibition with ready-to-eat food
|Bare hands may not come into contact with food that is ready to eat, such as salad or sandwiches.
|In this book, chemicals are referred to as
ingredients in cleaning, sanitizing, or pesticide products that make people sick if eaten.
|Keeping food cold using refrigeration or ice.
|When germs from one food item are passed to another food item, usually from raw food to ready-to-eat food.
|The temperature range of 41o F to 135o F, where bacteria grow quickly in food.
|Sickness caused by germs or toxins in food, also known as food poisoning.
|A metal-stem probe thermometer used to measure the temperature of food.
|Keeping food hot after proper cooking or reheating, with a minimum temperature of 135o F.
|A cut or burn that is swollen, red, or has pus.
|Tiny worms that live in fish, meat, and humans.
|Potentially Hazardous Foods (Time/Temperature Control)
|Moist, nutrient-rich foods that support the growth of bacteria when the temperature is between 41o F and 135o F.
|Reheating for hot holding
|The process of heating cold food to a minimum temperature of 165o F within two hours before placing it on a warming unit.
|The final step in removing bacteria from food contact surfaces, usually done by using a solution of one teaspoon of bleach to one gallon of water.
|Germs that can only reproduce inside a living cell and can cause illness. Viruses can enter food through improper hand hygiene, especially after using the toilet.
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