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CBRN is an acronym that stands for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear. Each of these represents a type of hazardous material that can pose serious threats to human health, the environment, and global security:
- Chemical: These are toxic substances that can cause harm to living organisms, primarily through chemical reactions at a molecular level. Examples include nerve agents, blister agents, and choking agents.
- Biological: These are pathogens or biologically-derived toxins that can cause disease or harm to living organisms. This category includes bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.
- Radiological: Radiological threats are derived from radioactive materials. They can cause harm through the emission of ionizing radiation, potentially leading to radiation sickness or contamination of the environment.
- Nuclear: This involves the use or threat of nuclear reactions or radiation. Unlike the other types, a nuclear threat often refers to the potential use of nuclear weapons, resulting in immense explosions and subsequent radiation fallout.
Throughout history, there have been several incidents, both accidental and intentional, involving CBRN materials:
- Chemical: The use of mustard gas during World War I and the tragic Bhopal gas leak in 1984 are glaring examples of chemical threats, both in warfare and industrial accidents.
- Biological: The anthrax attacks through the U.S. postal system in 2001 highlighted the potential for biological agents to be weaponized.
- Radiological: The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 underscore the catastrophic effects of uncontrolled radiological events.
- Nuclear: The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 remain the only instances of nuclear weapons used in warfare, illustrating their devastating power.
The significance of CBRN defense lies in its capacity to prevent, protect against, and respond to these diverse threats. A comprehensive CBRN defense strategy is essential not only for military preparedness but also for ensuring public safety, environmental protection, and global security.
The potential misuse of CBRN materials by terrorists or hostile nations has made this defense even more crucial in the modern age. Proper awareness, preparedness, and training can save countless lives and safeguard our way of life.
CBRN Defense Awareness V2.0 Test Answers
|The M50 mask is most effective in confined spaces where there is not enough oxygen in the air you breath to support life.||False|
|According to CPO donning procedures, which item(s) are donned first?||Trousers|
|Protective rubber footwear covers are designed to be worn _______?||over combat boots|
|What is a waterproofing bag?||A resealable plastic bag|
|How long should it take you to don the protective mask and ensure an airtight seal?||9 seconds|
|This chemical agent effects the skin, lungs, and cellular structures of the body.||Blister|
|Poisonous substances naturally produced by bacteria, plants, fungi, snakes, insects, and other living organisms are considered…||Toxin|
|Which one provides the best protection against gamma rays?||Several feet of concrete or a few inches of lead|
|What happens to M8 paper when it comes into contact with a liquid nerve or blister agent?||It changes color|
|How should you ensure removal of M9 paper from surfaces?||Fold the end of the M9 paper adhesive side to adhesive side|
|Which one best describes Alarm Yellow?||Attack is probable in less than 30 minutes.|
|Take cover is the primary response for which alarm condition?||Alarm Red|
|When should you submit a SALUTE report?||Upon encountering enemy activity.|
|Select the recovery action that should be taken immediately?||Perform immediate decontamination (if required)|
|What should you know before entering a contamination zone?||The alarm condition and MOPP level|
|According to CCOR Guidelines, objects are either ________.||small or large|
|The blue CBRN hazard marker with red text is used to indicate which type of hazard?||Biological|
|A tactic used to divide an installation or operating location into or more CBRN zones is called ________.||split MOPP|
|In donning your CPO hood ,which step comes first?||Pull the hood over the mask|
|Which one is a priority for immediate decontamination from CBRN contamination?||Exposed skin|
|Which type of chemical agent, when released, can cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or weeks?||Persistent|
|Which alarm condition indicates attack is over and CBRN contamination, UXO, and other hazards are suspected or present?||Alarm Black|
|The M50 mask carrier is worn on the left side of the body.||True|
|M9 paper should be attached where it can be seen and has the best chance ________.||Of coming in contact with contamination.|
|Which one shields your face, eyes, and respiratory tract from chemical and biological warfare agents and radioactive dust particles?||Protective mask|
|Which method may be used to deliver biological warfare agents?||Insect vectors|
|Why are vital resources, equipment and accents covered or stored under cover prior to a CBRN attack?||To protect them against CBRN contamination|
|The CBRN attack actions include preparedness, recovery and ________.||response|
|Short-term storage for the protective mask is when it is stored for less than 30 days with the head harness pulled back and…||False|
|What should you do upon issue of your protective mask?||Clean and inspect your protective mask IAW with the M50 mask T.O and as directed.|
|Which type of nuclear burst occurs above 100,000 feet surface level?||High-altitude burst|
|Which method(s) are used to deliver chemical warfare agents?||Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBM)|
|What should you do if an attack begins without warning?||Drop to the ground, don protective mask (if not already donned)|
|Attach M9 paper to your protective clothing near wrists, ankles and||both biceps|
|What can blister agents do to rubber gloves?||Reduce the protective time provided by the gloves.|
|Each M295 kit consists of a wallet containing four individual decon packets. What does each packet contain?||A decon mitt filled with decon powder.|
|Which type of nuclear burst occurs under 100,000 feet but the fireball doesn’t contact the Earth’s surface?||Air Burst|
Hazmat Awareness CBRN
|CWA (Clean Water Act)||Happens in waterways|
|SARA||Right to know|
|OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)||Worker safety|
Presence of a safety Officer
|EPA 40 CFR||Identical regulation as 29 CFR|
|DOT 49 CFR||Hazmat transportation regulations|
|NFPA 472||Hazmat responders|
|NFPA 473||EMS personnel|
|What training should awareness level personnel receive?||DOT, EPA, OSHA|
|What is an awareness level responder?||Recognize Protect Call Secure|
|Detect ?||The presence of hazardous materials|
|Survey?||Any hazmat marking|
|Collect?||Hazard information from the current edition of the ERG|
|Implement ?||to put into effect|
|LERP||Local emergency response plan|
|ERG||Emergency response guideline|
|AHJ||Authority Having Jurisdiction|
|Isolation?||Set perimeters and zones|
Use GREEN pages of ERG
|Notification Process for implement?||Call for assistance and provide updates|
|Hazardous materials?||NFPA 472|
A substance that can hurt people, the environment, and property.
|Hazardous materials?||DOT, covers all 9 hazard classes|
|Hazardous Substances?||Reported after a certain amount|
Federal involvement can be authorized
|Extremely hazardous substances||EPA term|
|Toxic chemicals||EPA term|
Reported annually by owners and operators
Used as a toxic chemical
|Hazardous chemicals||OSHA term|
Any chemical that can be a risk to employees in a workplace
|Dangerous Goods?||United nations|
|Highly hazardous chemicals||Possess toxic, reactive, flammable, explosive properties|
|DOT is classified by their?||Primary dangers|
|Size of placards?||11′ diamonds|
|How are materials grouped?||By their major hazardous characteristics|
|Difference between Canadian DOT and American DOT?||Nothing|
|Function by explosives?||Class 1|
|Mass explosion hazard?||Division 1.1|
|1.1 examples?||Dynamite and TNT|
|Projection hazard?||Division 1.2|
|1.2 examples?||Detonation cord|
|Fire hazard?||Division 1.3|
|1.3 examples?||Liquid fuel rocket motors|
|Minor explosion hazard||Division 1.4|
|1.4 examples?||Practice ammunition|
|Very insensitive?||Division 1.5|
|1.5 examples?||Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer|
|Extremely insensitive articles||Division 1.6|
|1.6 examples||Explosive squib devices|
|Major hazard for class 2?||BLEVE|
|BLEVE?||Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion|
|Flammable gas?||Division 2.1|
|2.1 is ignitable at ___%||13%|
|2.1 is flammable at ___%||12%|
|Nonflammable, nonpoisonous||Division 2.2|
|What gases are in division 2.2?||Liquified gas and cryogenic gas|
|What is the temp for cryogenic liquid?||-90C (-130F)|
|2.2 examples?||Anhydrous ammonia|
|Poison gas?||Division 2.3|
|Class 3?||Flammable combustible liquids|
|What is flammable liquids flash point?||Not more than 60C (140F)|
|Combustible liquid flash point?||Above 60C (140F)|
|Flammable liquid examples?||Gasoline and toluene|
|Combustible liquid examples?||No. 6 fuel oil|
|Class 4?||Flammable combustible solids|
|Flammable solids?||Division 4.1|
|4.1 examples?||Magnesium pellets And nitrocellulose|
|Spontaneously combustible materials||Division 4.2|
|Pyrophoric material?||Can ignite within 5 min after coming in contact with air|
|4.2 examples||Charcoal briquettes and phosphorus|
|Dangerous when wet materials||Division 4.3|
|4.3 examples||Magnesium powder|
|What does an oxidizer do?||Yield oxygen and cause or enhance the combustion of other materials|
|5.1 example?||Ammonium nitrate|
|Organic peroxide?||Division 5.2|
|What does organic peroxide do?||Organic compounds containing oxygen in bivalve tank structure derived from hydrogen peroxide|
|Type A||Can detonate and deflagrate|
Forbidden for transportation
|Type B||Neither detonate and deflagrates|
Can undergo a thermal explosion
|Type C||Neither detonate and deflagrates|
Cannot undergo thermal explosion
|Type G||Neither detonate or deflagrates|
No explosive power
|Major hazards for class 6?||Toxicity and infectious|
|What does poisonous materials?||A material other than gas|
|Poisonous material?||Division 6.1|
|6.1 examples||Arsenic compounds and tear gas|
|What does infectious substance do?||Comprises materials containing a pathogen|
|6.2 examples?||Anthrax and botulism|
|How many micro-curries are in class 7?||0.002 per gram @ 1cm|
|Class 7 examples?||Cobalt and uranium|
|Major hazards for class 8?||Burns|
|Corrosive material leaves destruction to?||Site of contact|
|Miscellaneous definition?||Presents a hazard during transportation and can cause annoyance to a flight crew member|
|Class 9 examples?||PCBs, molten, and sulfur|
|ORM-D Definition?||Limited hazard during transportation due to its form, quantity and packaging|
|ORM-D examples?||Small arms ammo|
Finger nail polish
|Placard for forbidden?||None|
|Forbidden examples?||5.2 (A) materials|
|Elevated temperature material?||Liquid above 100C(212F)|
Liquid with flashpoint above 37.8C(100F)
Solid above 240C(464F)
|Long term effects of WMD?||People, property, and environment|
|Intent?||Intended to cause damage, inflict harm, and kill|
|Severity and complexity?||May involve numbers of casualties or unusual materials|
|Crime Scene Management||Preservation of evidence|
|Incident command||Most terrorist incidents require some form of unified command|
|Attacks designed to incapacitate emergency responders include||Secondary events|
|Typical occupancies and locations||Tank farms and hospitals|
|Preincident planning needs to have what type of person there?||Facility manager|
|Radioactive containers?||TYPE A – Protective overpacks|
TYPE B – Casks
|Type B casks have to withstand?||Accidental damage testing including a 30ft drop|
|Pressurized products containers||Cylinders|
High pressure cargo tank
Pressure rail car
|What are high pressure cargo tanks used for?||Highway shipment of pressurized products|
|What kind of corners for pressurized products?||Round.|
|How are pressurized tank cars generally distinguished?||Presence of a single protective housing on top|
|Where is the high-pressure tub trailer permanently mounted on?||Semi-trailer|
|Is a tube module permanent mounted on an open frame?||Yes|
|Corrosive materials containers?||Carboys|
Corrosive liquid cargo tank
|What are carboys made out of?||Glass and plastic|
|What kind of protection does the corrosive liquid cargo tank have?||Rollover protection|
|Flammable liquids containers?||Drums and jerricans|
Non pressure liquid cargo tank
Non pressure cars
Dru bull cargo tank
|Non-pressure liquid cargo tanks DOT?||DOT 406|
|What does non-pressure liquid cargo tank transport?||Transports flammable liquids in highway transportation|
|Non-pressure cars have…||Either an expansion dome with visible fittings|
|Dry bull cargo tank has a…||V-shaped bottom structure and a pneumatically unloaded hopper car|
|WMD Marking classes?||1.1 detonation|
1.3 mass fire
1.4 moderate fire
|Special hazard communication markings have the…||hazard communication standard pictograms|
|Placement of pipeline markers?||Adjacent to and above a hazardous material pipeline|
|Required info for pipeline markers?||Product|
Emergency phone number
|How are Container markings marked?||Have the actual names of the material stenciled on the container|
|Does the NFPA 704 marking system provide you with the name of the material?||No|
|What does a “W” with a line through it mean?||Avoid use of water|
|What is the NFPA 704 intended to do?||Provide immediate general information|
|What does OX stand for?||Oxidizer|
|Blue diamond means?||Health|
|Red diamond means?||Flammability|
|Yellow diamond means?||Instability|
|Examples in the group 4, red diamond?||Volatile and pyrophoric materials|
|White diamond?||Special hazards (not numbered)|
|Who is required to maintain the SDS in each facility?||Facility manager and employer|
|All employees have the…||Right to know|
|Section 9 in SDS||physical and chemical properties|
|Basic info needed for shipping papers||Proper shipping name|
Hazard class and division
Product ID number
Standard Trans Commodity Code
|Another name for CAS||Chemical’s social security number|
|How many digits is a STCC number?||7|
|Title of shipping paper for HIGHWAY||Bill of landing|
|Title of shipping paper for RAIL||Way bill|
|Title of shipping paper for WATER||Dangerous cargo manifest|
|Title of shipping paper for AIR||Air bill|
|Responsible person for HIGHWAY||Driver|
|Responsible person for RAIL||Conductor|
|Responsible person for WATER||Captain|
|Responsible person for AIR||Pilot|
|Location of shipping papers for HIGHWAY||Cab of vehicle|
|Location of shipping papers for RAIL||Train crew|
|Location of shipping papers for WATER||Wheel house|
|Location of shipping papers for AIR||Cockpit|
|Senses to detect clues of WMD||Sight|
|For the sense sight what should you look out for?||For and vapor cloud|
|Terrorists targets?||Public assembly and a military installation|
|A chemical incident is characterized by?||A rapid onset of medical conditions|
|Chemical agent indicators include||Lab equipment and unexplained odors and taste|
|Bio agents are usually…||Colorless and odorless|
|Rad terrorist activities||Explosion to scare people and contaminate property|
|Illicit laboratories terrorist activities||Presence of propane or other flammable gas cylinders in unusual locations|
|The NFPA 704 does not…||Tell the specific chemical name, quantity present, or exact location|
|Best time to identify WMD in facilities||Before an incident occurs|
|Excellent source of information to go to when trying to find a name of a WMD||SDS|
|Precaution when providing emergency medical care to victims of WMD INCIDENTS||Don’t get contaminated|
|Typical ignition sources?||Smoking materials and friction heat|
|Ways WMD are harmful to people, environment, and property||Etiologic and poisonous|
|What does etiologic mean?||Contamination from bodily fluid-borne diseases|
|Two general routes of entry for exposure to WMD||Contact and injection|
|Role of awareness personnel during WMD incident follows||Recognize|
|LERP?||local emergency response plan|
|Some techniques used to isolate the hazard area and deny entry||Erect barricades and close doors and gates|
|Actions when an incident is suspected to involve criminal or terrorist activity||Protect yourself|
Common Agents and Their Effects
Chemical agents can be classified based on their intended effects:
- Nerve Agents (e.g., Sarin, VX): Interfere with the nervous system’s functioning, leading to overstimulation of muscles and other tissues. Symptoms can include difficulty breathing, twitching, and eventually paralysis and death.
- Blister Agents (e.g., Mustard Gas): Cause severe chemical burns on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Blistering appears hours after exposure, with potential long-term complications.
- Choking Agents (e.g., Chlorine, Phosgene): Affect the respiratory system, leading to difficulty in breathing, and can cause fluid accumulation in the lungs.
- Blood Agents (e.g., Hydrogen Cyanide): Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen, leading to cellular suffocation.
- Incapacitating Agents (e.g., Agent BZ): Cause physiological or mental effects, making individuals unable to perform their tasks.
Detection and Protection Measures
- Field Detection Kits: Portable kits can identify the presence of specific chemical agents.
- Monitoring Equipment: Deployed in sensitive areas, they can provide real-time alerts about chemical threats.
- Environmental Sampling: Collecting samples from the environment, followed by lab analysis, provides definitive identification.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Includes masks, suits, gloves, and boots that shield individuals from chemical exposures.
- Shelters: Specialized shelters can provide a controlled environment, ensuring safety during a chemical event.
- Vaccinations and Prophylactics: In some cases, pre-treatments can reduce the effects of chemical agents.
Effective decontamination is crucial to prevent further harm from chemical agents:
- Immediate Action:
- Remove the individual from the contaminated area.
- Remove outer clothing to reduce agent concentration.
- Flush exposed skin and eyes with water.
- Full Decontamination:
- Use specialized decontaminating solutions or soaps to wash the entire body.
- Decontaminate equipment and gear using solutions or specialized wipes.
- Handle contaminated clothes with gloves and place in sealed bags.
- Area Decontamination:
- Use absorbents, neutralizers, or other chemicals to decontaminate surfaces and grounds.
- Ventilate indoor spaces.
- Contaminated waste should be disposed of according to regulations.
Regular drills and training ensure that individuals and teams are prepared to handle chemical threats efficiently, ensuring safety and minimizing the impact of such incidents.
Types of Pathogens and Their Transmission
Biological agents can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins. They can lead to diseases or illnesses in humans, plants, or animals.
- Bacteria (e.g., Anthrax, Plague): Single-celled microorganisms that can cause a range of diseases.
- Transmission: Often through direct contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, or inhalation of aerosolized particles.
- Viruses (e.g., Smallpox, Ebola): Infectious agents that replicate inside living cells and can cause various diseases.
- Transmission: Respiratory droplets, direct contact, vectors like mosquitoes, or contaminated surfaces.
- Fungi (e.g., Coccidioidomycosis): Can lead to infections especially in immunocompromised individuals.
- Transmission: Typically through inhalation of spores from the environment.
- Toxins (e.g., Ricin, Botulinum toxin): Poisonous substances produced by certain plants, animals, or microorganisms.
- Transmission: Ingestion, inhalation, or injection.
Symptoms and Immediate First Aid
- Symptoms: Fever, chills, fatigue, localized infections, or sepsis.
- First Aid: Clean any wounds, provide supportive care, and seek medical attention immediately.
- Symptoms: Fever, body aches, respiratory symptoms, rashes, hemorrhagic signs.
- First Aid: Isolate the patient, provide supportive care, ensure hydration, and seek medical advice.
- Symptoms: Respiratory difficulties, rashes, or systemic symptoms.
- First Aid: Supportive care, ensure the patient’s airway is clear, and consult healthcare providers.
- Symptoms: Depending on the toxin, symptoms can range from gastrointestinal disturbances to paralysis.
- First Aid: Remove the source of exposure, wash affected areas, and seek emergency medical attention.
Preventative Measures and Treatments
- Vaccination: Immunization against certain biological agents can prevent diseases.
- Quarantine and Isolation: Separating affected individuals can prevent the spread of infectious agents.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Wearing masks, gloves, and other protective gear can reduce exposure.
- Environmental Controls: Air filtration systems and UV lights can reduce pathogenic loads in environments.
- Hygiene: Regular hand washing, sanitizing surfaces, and proper food handling can prevent many biological threats.
- Medical Treatments: Antibiotics for bacterial infections, antiviral medications for some viral diseases, antifungal medications, and specific antidotes for toxins.
Awareness and early detection are vital. Proper medical intervention can often mitigate the effects of biological agents, making it crucial to recognize symptoms and seek help promptly.
Nature of Radiological Materials
Radiological materials emit ionizing radiation, which can harm living tissues. They can originate from:
- Natural Sources: Such as radon gas and cosmic radiation.
- Man-made Sources: Including medical radiography equipment, nuclear power plants, and certain industrial tools.
- Deliberate Malicious Use: “Dirty bombs” or radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) that spread radioactive materials, often to induce panic rather than cause immediate harm.
Types of Radiation and Health Implications
- Alpha Radiation (α):
- Nature: Helium nuclei consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
- Penetration: Low. Can be stopped by paper or human skin.
- Health Risk: Mostly dangerous if alpha-emitting material is ingested or inhaled, leading to cellular damage from within.
- Beta Radiation (β):
- Nature: High-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons.
- Penetration: Medium. Can penetrate skin but is stopped by plastic, glass, or aluminum.
- Health Risk: External exposure can cause skin burns, while internal exposure can harm cells and DNA.
- Gamma Radiation (γ):
- Nature: Electromagnetic radiation (high-energy photons).
- Penetration: High. Requires dense materials like lead or several centimeters of concrete to stop.
- Health Risk: Can penetrate deep into the body, increasing the risk of cancer and affecting internal organs.
- Neutron Radiation:
- Nature: Free neutrons usually emitted from nuclear fission.
- Penetration: Very high.
- Health Risk: Can be extremely damaging as it can make other materials radioactive upon interaction.
Detection, Protection, and Mitigation
- Geiger-Müller Counter: A handheld device that can detect beta and gamma radiation.
- Dosimeters: Worn by individuals, they measure accumulated radiation exposure.
- Scintillation Detectors: Used to detect gamma radiation.
- Neutron Detectors: Specifically designed to detect neutron radiation.
- Time: Minimize the time spent near the radiation source.
- Distance: Increase distance from the radiation source as radiation intensity decreases with the square of the distance.
- Shielding: Use barriers of lead, concrete, or water to shield against ionizing radiation.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Including lead aprons and thyroid shields for certain work environments.
- Emergency Response: Evacuate the affected area, establish a perimeter, and assess the situation.
- Decontamination: Remove and dispose of contaminated clothing and wash skin.
- Medical Intervention: In cases of high exposure, treatments like potassium iodide can protect the thyroid from radioactive iodine.
Understanding radiological threats, their potential impacts, and ways to detect and mitigate them is crucial to ensure safety in both routine and emergency situations.
Differences between Nuclear and Radiological Threats
- Nuclear Threats: Emanate from nuclear reactions, like the detonation of a nuclear weapon or a reactor meltdown.
- Radiological Threats: Result from exposure to radioactive materials, which may or may not be a byproduct of a nuclear process.
- Nuclear Threats: Typically have much larger destructive potential due to explosive force, heat, and subsequent radioactive fallout.
- Radiological Threats: Generally localized and often lack an explosive component, but contamination can still pose serious health risks.
- Nuclear Threats: Primarily involve deliberate acts of warfare or terrorism.
- Radiological Threats: Can be accidental (e.g., industrial accidents) or deliberate (e.g., “dirty bombs”).
Potential Effects of Nuclear Explosions
- Blast: A nuclear explosion releases immense energy in the form of a shockwave, causing widespread destruction.
- Heat: Intense heat from a nuclear explosion can result in firestorms, causing burns and igniting large areas.
- Immediate Radiation: A burst of gamma and neutron radiation in the vicinity of the explosion can be lethal to humans.
- Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): A nuclear blast can produce an EMP that can damage or disable electronic devices and grid systems.
- Fallout: After the explosion, radioactive particles are carried into the atmosphere and can fall over a large area, leading to long-term health risks like cancer.
Preparedness and Protection Strategies
- Awareness and Planning: Understand potential threats and have an emergency plan in place, including knowing evacuation routes and designated shelters.
- Sheltering: In the event of a nuclear explosion, the immediate recommendation is to “get inside, stay inside, and stay tuned.” Basements or the center of large buildings offer the best protection against fallout.
- Distance: The farther away you are from the blast and fallout, the better your chances of survival. Even moving to another room or getting behind a barrier can significantly reduce radiation exposure.
- Time: Radioactive fallout decays rapidly. The first hours after an explosion are the most dangerous, but waiting even a few days in a shelter can greatly reduce the risk of radiation exposure.
- Protection: Wear protective clothing and use respiratory protection if venturing outside after a blast. This can prevent the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials.
- Decontamination: If exposed to fallout, remove clothing and wash thoroughly. This can remove a large portion of contamination and reduce the risk of internal exposure.
Being prepared and understanding the dynamics of a nuclear threat can drastically improve survival chances and reduce the long-term health impacts of exposure.
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