RBT Practice Exam: 85 Questions for Free

rbt practice exam

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The actual RBT exam has 85 questions, 10 of which are “under review” and do not count towards your score (the board is assessing the difficulty of those questions to ensure they are appropriate for the exam). You would have one hour to complete this exam – however, this quiz is untimed!

RBT Practice Quiz

 

RBT Mock Exam Questions and Answers

 

1. What is a multiple relationship?

  • Working with two clients at the same time
  • Working with two different clients
  • Having two different relationships with one client
  • Working with a client in the community and clinic settings

2. Which of the following is part of the RBT ethical code?

  • Be compassionate for the less fortunate
  • Be truthful and honest
  • Resolve all issues formally
  • If there is an issue, file a formal complaint immediately

3. A client gives you a bottle opener from their birthday party. What does the ethical code say you should do?

  • Refuse the gift and send a letter home that forbids future gifting.
  • Accept and use in front of them to make them feel good.
  • Politely decline and explain to them/ their parents the nature of your professional relationship.
  • Throw it away immediately.

4. What should you do if you are arrested for a minor marijuana charge?

  • Report to BACB within 24 hours
  • Do not report; this is not a fireable offense and your credential with remain in tact
  • Provide 2 weeks notice to employer
  • Report to BACB within 30 days

5. Which is considered confidential information per the BACB ethical code?

  • Information about a client that can be found online
  • Information about the people that RBT works with
  • Written records
  • Electronic records
  • All of the above

6. If you are not providing direct ABA services and are having a fun Friday, what should you do?

  • Do not make reference to, display, or otherwise use your RBT
  • Explain to parents that ABA was being performed under their RBT credential
  • Display your RBT certificate when requested
  • Bill since you have the RBT credetial

7. Your supervisor requests that you work with a new client who has behaviors you have never encountered. What should you do?

  • Refuse as you lack experience in this type of behavior
  • Request more training from supervising BCBA
  • Accept since you are contractually obligated
  • Politely decline

8. Which antecedent increases or decreases the value of a consequence?

  • Abolishing Operation
  • Establishing Operation
  • Motivating Operation
  • SD

9. You are recording the time it takes from the presentation of the demand (Sd) to the first instance of behavior. What are you measuring?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Latency
  • Inter-response time

10. How long the behavior occurs refers to what measurement dimension?

  • Duration
  • Momentary time sampling
  • Latency
  • Tally/ Count

11. John is recording data on aggression by counting the number of scratches left on his body after a session. What kind of measurement is this?

  • Duration
  • Time sampling
  • Continuous measurement
  • Permanent product

12. Escape, attention, tangible, sensory

  • Functions of behavior
  • Teaching strategies
  • Types of prompts
  • Dimensions of ABA

13. Determined by ABC Data

  • Prompt level
  • Duration
  • Function
  • Inter-response time

14. The breakdown of a task into its individual components and steps.

  • Discrete trial
  • Forward chaining
  • Stimulus control
  • Task analysis

15. Signals that reinforcement is available.

  • Sd
  • Sdelta
  • SR-
  • VR-3

16. Examples are food, water, sex, sleep.

  • Secondary reinforcement
  • Primary reinforcement
  • Sd
  • Consequence of behavior

17. Examples are money and tokens.

  • Primary reinforcement
  • Secondary reinforcement
  • Economic reinforcement
  • Fiscal considerations

18. Increases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Punishment
  • Motivation
  • Rewards
  • Reinforcement

19. Adding a stimulus which increases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

20. Verbal behavior with point-to-point correspondence.

  • Mand
  • Tact
  • Intraverbal
  • Echoic

21. Removing a stimulus which decreases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

22. Reinforcement is delivered on the average of every 2 minutes in which the behaviors occur.

  • FI-2
  • FR-2
  • VI-2
  • VR-2

23. What are the four functions of behavior?

  • Toys, Edibles, Praise, and Aversion
  • Sensory, Escape, Attention, and Tangibles
  • Sensory Overload, Non-Compliance, Aggression, and Compliance
  • Automatic Sensory, Automatic Positive, and Social Negative

24. Verbal behavior of requesting

  • Mand
  • Tact
  • Echoic
  • Intraverbal

25. Removing a stimulus which decreases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

26. Tilda finished her session after being supervised by her BCBA. During the session, she recorded data on a paper data collection sheet. While she was cleaning up, she spilled a cup of coffee all over her data sheet, making it completely illegible.

What should Tilda do? Her company has strict policies regarding staff who fail to properly enter data at the end of a shift!

  • Tilda should not record any data for that session – that would be unethical. No further action (such as contacting her supervisor) is necessary – if a supervisor sees no data collected, they automatically know that coffee was spilled on the paper data sheet due to their experience with coffee and paper in the past.
  • Tilda should try her best to estimate the client’s performance on each skill target. After all, it wasn’t that long ago – she can probably remember everything alright.
  • Tilda should notify her supervisor of the mishap and try to prevent such a fiasco in the future – perhaps by using mechanical or digital data collection systems.
  • Tilda should submit the coffee-stained paper data sheet to her supervisor during the next supervision session and resign.

27. What occurs before the behavior?

  • Antecedent
  • Response
  • Behavior
  • Consequence

28. Example, “do this.”

  • Sd
  • DRA
  • Sdelta
  • SR+

29. What occurs after the behavior?

  • Antecedent
  • Behavior
  • Response
  • Consequence

30. Tammy is a BCBA working at a behavior analysis clinic. She is creating a flyer for an exciting workshop event at her clinic, and wants to share it with all the families currently receiving behavior analysis services, so she mass emails (cc – carbon copy) the entire roster of active patients at her facilty.

What, if anything, is wrong with this situation?

  • This is fine and permitted by the BACB, within reason
  • CC (carbon copy) reveals the names of people who are receiving behavior analysis services without getting their consent first, which violates HIPPA, as revealing the name of someone receiving mental health services is protected healthcare information.
  • Generally speaking, behavior analysis is not a “medical” field and therefore not required to respect privacy as federally mandated by the HIPAA act. However, this type of behavior is considered somewhat “unclassy.”
  • Sam should avoid sending out mass emails, as it’s very tacky

31. Tim, a BCBA, always writes his procedures in clear and concise terms so that his staff (and families, too!) can easily understand what is meant by his procedures. He provides complete and full definitions, and avoids using overly specific jargon when the person(s) who will be reading or implementing his procedures are laypersons.
Of the 7 Dimensions of ABA (as originally described by Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, R., 1968), which of the following does the above most closely describe?

  • Applied
  • Behavioral
  • Technological
  • Conceptually Systematic

32. Start with most intrusive prompt.

  • Forward chaining
  • Backwards chaining
  • Most to least prompting
  • Least to most prompting

33. Reinforcing gradual changes in behavior.

  • Chaining
  • Shaping
  • Prompting
  • Reinforcing

34. Teaching a task analysis by teaching the first step first.

  • Forward chaining
  • Prompting
  • Backwards chaining
  • Fading

35. Start with least intrusive prompt.

  • Forward chaining
  • Backwards chaining
  • Least to most prompting
  • Most to least prompting

36. Teaching the entire task analysis at once

  • Total task presentation
  • Single task presentation
  • Discriminative stimulus
  • Forward chaining

37. Reinforcement provided on the average of every 5 correct responses

  • VR-5
  • VI-5
  • FR-5
  • FI-5

38. Reinforcement provided every 2 minutes in which behavior occurred.

  • VI-2
  • VR-2
  • FR-2
  • FI-2

39. Reinforcement provided every 10 minutes that behavior occurs.

  • FI-10
  • FR-10
  • VI-10
  • VR-10

40. MSWO

  • Multiple stimulus with replacement
  • Multiple stimulus without replacement
  • Multiple stimulus with operates
  • Multiple settings with replacement

41. FBA

  • free behavior assessment
  • functional behavior assessment
  • function of behavior analysis
  • Freudian behavior assessment

42. You provide reinforcement to your client for clapping, and ignore him when he hits.

  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
  • Differential reinforcement for lower rats of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior

43. Reinforcing progressively lower response rates.

  • Differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

44. Reinforcing progressively increasing rates of behavior.

  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior

45. Which of the following examples below is an example of a VARIABLE RATIO schedule of reinforcement?

  • Grandma loves the slots in Vegas! On average, every 30th pull of the slot machine results in a small cash payout. Sometimes the payout occurs on the 15th pull… sometimes on the 45th… but, on average, payout occurs every 30 pulls on the slot machine. Grandma can’t wait to hit the jackpot someday!
  • Every time Billy screams, his mother punishes him by taking away his toys for the night
  • Tim gives his students a treat from the candy jar every time they get a 100% on their tests
  • Individuals who pass the RBT exam are given a $50 bonus on their next pay check at ACME ABA company.

46. Withholding reinforcement for a target response

  • Variable reinforcement
  • Extinction
  • Punishment
  • Reinforcement schedule

47. Sometimes, behavior analysts will break down a complex chain of behaviors into smaller discrete steps to facilitate teaching.

The learner will then be taught to complete the steps in their logical order, with the completion of the previous step serving as the reinforcer for that step and the discriminative stimulus (SD) for the next step. Finally, the last step in the chain (terminal step) serves as the reinforcer for the whole chain.

What is this called?

  • Task Analysis
  • Task Step
  • Task Endurance
  • Task Sequence
  • A Recipe

48. An experienced RBT supervises other RBTs at work, due to a shortage of board certified assistant (BCaBA) and board-certified behavior analysts (BCBAs).

What, if any, ethical consideration exists here?

  • As long as the RBT is being supervised by a behavior analyst, there is no ethical concern here.
  • There is no ethical concern here – this is standard practice, as mandated by the BACB.
  • The RBT needs to be supervised directly by a certified behavior analyst (BCaBA, BCBA, BCBA-D). The type of supervision and quantity are directly specified by the board.
  • As long as the RBT practices lots of the free quizzes on this awesome website, they should be fine.

49. You’re about to start a session with a client. What do you need to do to be sure you’re ready to have a successful session (at the very minimum)?

  • You can probably just wing it. You’re pretty good at this, after all, and your memory is amazing.
  • A cup of coffee is all anyone really needs – if anyone tells you elsewise, they’re a liar or a tea-drinker.
  • You should know the responses and their response definitions that you will be measuring during your session. In addition, make sure you’re prepared to take data – clickers, notepaper and a pencil, whatever you need, make sure you have it!
  • Before the session, conduct a functional behavioral assessment and an informal preference assessment. Following that, draft a treatment plan while the client plays with an iPad.

50. What happens before/ immediately precedes behavior in data collection is known as the…

  • Antecedent
  • Motivation Operation
  • Preceding Stimulus
  • Setting event

51. How long a tantrum behavior occurs, how long it takes a client to do homework; what type of data collection is this?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Interresponse time
  • Latency

52. Time between two successive responses.

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Intensity
  • Inter-response time

53. Record a + if behavior occurred at any point during the interval.

  • Momentary Time Sampling
  • Duration per Occurrence
  • Partial Interval Recording
  • Partial Interview Recording

54. When attempting to assess the function of a client’s behavior, what is often considered the “gold standard” for experimentally identifying function?

  • Ask yourself, “What are the A-B-C’s for this behavior?” Sketch it out, and write a functional response definition for the behavior and proceed with treatment. Trust your intuition!
  • Watch the behavior of interest occur in the natural environment; that should be sufficient.
  • Free operant or multiple stimulus assessment
  • Conducting an analog or naturalistic functional analysis is usually considered the best way to identify function

55. Select the best definition for differential reinforcement, from the choices below:

  • A stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, causes an overall INCREASE in that behavior over time.
  • Providing greater reinforcement for better approximations of a target behavior, and placing other behaviors on extinction or on a less desirable reinforcement schedule.
  • A stimulus that signals the availability of a reinforcer.
  • A stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, causes an overall DECREASE in that behavior over time.

56. A little boy is playing with his toys in his room. Holding one of his stuffed animal dolls, he looks at it and says “Zebra!”

Which elementary verbal operant does this scenario most likely describe?

  • Intraverbal
  • Echoic
  • Autoclitic
  • Tact

57. Teaching communication to replace problem behaviors.

  • Functional communication training
  • FIT
  • Differential reinforcement of other behaviors
  • FR-3 schedule of reinforcement

58. What occurs when reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is no longer provided, resulting in the decrease of frequency of the behavior in the future?

  • Endangerment
  • Extinction
  • Pivotal Response Training
  • Negative reinforcement

59. For a child who is always picked up when they cry, not picking them up in the future would be an example of…?

  • Escape
  • Elopement
  • Extinction
  • Negative reinforcement

60. Which type of extinction procedure has the individual simply giving no outward signs or response to a behavior, such as eye contact, verbal/ physical responses?

  • Planned ignoring
  • Escape extinction
  • Functional communication training
  • Positive reinforcement

61. A child is taught to raise their hand as an alternative to yelling out in class. Which type of differential reinforcement does this example represent?

  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
  • Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
  • Differential reinforcement of other behaviors

62. Classical conditioning is also commonly referred to as…

  • Reflex Reaction
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Learning
  • Pavolovian Conditioning

63. For a child who is scratching his skin, extinction can be used by the child wearing a glove, preventing the contact of the sensory stimulation that comes from scratching the skin. Which type of extinction does this represent?

  • Sensory extinction
  • Escape extinction
  • Attention extinction
  • Functional communication training

64. A neutral stimulus can become conditioned by pairing this stimulus with an unconditioned or previously conditioned stimulus. True or false?

  • True
  • False

65. The sign being illuminated at your favorite restaurnt says “open.” The open sign signals he availability of stopping, as it indicates that the behavior of going into the restaurant will be reinforced by the delivery of food. What type of stimulus is this an example of?

  • Sd
  • Sdelta
  • Ds
  • SR+

66. This follows a response and increases the probability of that response occurring again in the future.

  • Punishment
  • Reinforcement
  • Consequence
  • Stimulus

67. Adding something that will motivate a person to increase the likelihood that they will engage in the target behavior again. What type of reinforcement is this?

  • Positive
  • Negative
  • Continuous
  • Discontinuous

68. Food is an example of what type of reinforcer?

  • Unconditioned
  • Conditioned
  • Negative
  • Positive

69. Money is an example of what type of reinforcement?

  • Negative
  • Unconditioned
  • Secondary
  • Primary

70. Extremely bright lights, freezing temperature, electric shock are all examples of which punisher?

  • Conditioned
  • Unknown
  • Unconditioned
  • Secondary

71. Satiation is a term that refers to what?

  • An abolishing operation (value decrease) of a reinforcer due to an organism being over-exposed to that stimulus
  • An establishing operation (value increase) of a reinforcer due to it’s scarcity
  • A stimulus that is aversive or non-preferred
  • To be at capacity or over-supplied

72. Which of the following is true about cumulative records?

  • Trends in a cumulative record can include a positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) slope
  • A combination of all frequency scores into a single “master score index” used in statistical analysis to compare frequency charts for different types of radical behaviors
  • Data never decreases in a cumulative record; an increasing slope indicates occurrence of the target behavior, while a flat slope indicates periods of no occurrences of the target behavior
  • Data is recorded once per session; downward slopes indicate a decreasing trend

73. Removing something that increases the future likelihood of behavior is called…

  • Negative punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Positive reinforcement

74. Present 5 easy/ mastered tasks in quick succession immediately before presenting an acquisition target.

  • Behavior modification
  • Behavior momentum
  • Behavior inertia
  • Functional community training.

75. Is exaggerating covered by the RBT ethical code?

  • Yes
  • No

76. How much time needs to pass before entering a relationship with a client or supervisor?

  • 2 years after the working relationship ends
  • 6 months after the working relationship ends
  • 1 month, as long as a personal relationship is established
  • Never

77. What should you do if you are arrested for a minor marijuana charge?

  • Report to BACB within 24 hours
  • Do not report; this is not a fireable offense and your credential with remain in tact
  • Provide 2 weeks notice to employer
  • Report to BACB within 30 days

78. When working with a client, whose preferences should take priority?

  • Parent
  • Teacher
  • BCBA
  • Client

79. If you become aware that a client’s legal rights are being violated, which of the following actions should you take?

  • Contact relevant authorities
  • Follow organization’s policies
  • Document efforts to address the matter
  • Consult with your supervisor
  • All of the above

80. Sally is an RBT working with a client named Jim. Jim tends to scream and bite his arm forcefully when presented with his token board, and sometimes when Sally opens up her laptop. Sally almost never opens up her laptop unless she’s about to ask Jim to do some of his table work activities.

What do you think the most likely function of Jim’s behavior is?

  • Sensory Overload
  • Escape from demands presented by others (Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement)
  • Access to Tangibles, such as preferred Items & activities (Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement)
  • Escape from a painful stimulus, such as a headache! (Automatically Mediated Negative Reinforcement)

81. You are asked to collect data on aggression. Every time your learner agresses, you click the tally counter. What are you measuring?

  • Duration
  • Duration per occurrence
  • Latency
  • Frequency

82. You are recording the time it takes from the presentation of the demand (Sd) to the first instance of behavior. What are you measuring?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Latency
  • Inter-response time

83. For every third correct response, you deliver a preferred edible. What reinforcement schedule is this?

  • FR-3
  • FI-3
  • VR-3
  • VI-3

84. Which of the following is the LEAST unethical decision?

  • An RBT working with a family on community skills goals in a shopping mall is offered a gift by the family once they conclude their shopping trip. The RBT accepts the gift.
  • A family is going on vacation and wants to bring their RBT along to help their child work on goals while on vacation. The RBT can’t afford the trip, so the family decides to pay for their trip in order to bring them along. The RBT agrees, as this is a valid business expense.
  • A small child, who is the client of an RBT, offers the RBT a hand-made card, made from construction paper and way too much glitter, as a gift. The RBT readily accepts with a big smile on his face.
  • A mechanic, who is the father of a child receiving behavioral services from an RBT, notices the RBT is having trouble starting her car. He offers to help her fix it at his shop for free. The RBT is grateful, and accepts the gift from the client’s father.

85. Response definitions, sometimes also referred to as operational definitions or behavior definitions, refer to a …

  • Objective, clear, concise, and complete description of a behavior of interest
  • Use laymans terms to explain to parents what type of function the behavior most likely possesses
  • Describe only the function of the behavior of interest
  • Provide a subjective, comfortable description of the behavior of interest

Missed Questions

 

Gene, A preschooler, is a thumbsucker. The teacher finds it unsanitary and has asked a BCBA working with the preschool to help her decrease the thumb sucking. The BCBA asks you to take baseline data. Which measurement dimension would be most useful to the BCBA when they design an intervention?
Duration, or how much time during the day Gene is sucking her thumb.
RBT’s will often be charged with helping clients increase their current repertoire of skills. Skill acquisition plans are aimed to do just that. Components of a successful plan include: identifying the deficit, create a goal to address the deficit, establish a data measurement system, take baseline data, select and implement an acquisition procedure, then collect data to assess effectiveness of the procedure. The final step would likely be…..
modify existing plan based on assessment data
As an RBT you may come across many variations of Behavior Reduction Plans or Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs). However, all good plans should include: Intro/ Background info, descriptions of behaviors, hypothesized functions, functionally equivalent replacement behaviors, skill acquisition strategies, antecedent prevention strategies, and…..
Reaction strategies, measurement systems, system of reinforcement
A discrimination stimulus is…
something in the environment that either evokes or abates behavior and a signal that reinforcement is available
A good skill acquisition plan will include an objective, criteria for mastery, how to teach the skill and necessary prompts, as well as stating…
specific roles of those working with the client
Which of the following would be the best addition to objective session notes?
Client performed 3 of 5 given tasks with 100% mastery
When generating session notes, RBTs should be aware of…
objectively and lack of personal bias
What is the role of the RBT in the service delivery system?
implement behavior intervention plan
When Behavioral professional speak of ethics they are talking about….
accepted standards of behavior, doing what is right
The measure of a permanent product looks at…
production
The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code of Behavior Analyst devotes an entire section to Behavior Analyst’s Responsibility to clients. All are appropriate except….
talk to parents or caregivers, not the clients
RBT are likely to be the ABA professionals who are implementing skill acquisition plans. In order to prepare and plan for a session, RBTs should always …….. , before collecting their materials, including data tracking forms.
review session notes from the previous session, and decide how to proceed with the current session

 

RBT Discrimination Practice

Discrimination Definition
When you engage in behavior under certain circumstances and not under other circumstances
Antecedents & Consequences of a behavior help us learn to make discriminations
Behavior occurs in presence of specific situations or contexts in which they were reinforced in the past
Examples of making a discrimination
Ex. Apple, that’s an apple, vs that’s a cat
stop at red light, not at green light
good morning in morning but not at night
Making Discriminations
Ex Julia-borrow car, mom says yes, dad says no, more likely to ask mom
Engaging in a discrimination because of the different consequences that were applied to the same behavior
Julia’s behavior is under stimulus control
Behavior occurs in the presence of specific contexts in which they were reinforced in the past
Discrimination Training
The result of discrimination training is stimulus control
Discrimination training involved reinforcing some responses and not reinforcing other responses in the presence of some antecedent stimulus
To help student learn to make discriminations, you can teach more than one target reponse at a time
Ex. Labeling objects–label multiple items during training
The result of this discrimination training is stimulus control
Discrimination Training-Collecting & Analyzing Data
Collect data on the behvor being taught to make sure the teaching procedure is effective
Record response to each antecedent stimulus
Graph Data Collected
Analyze the Data

 

Other Questions to Learn (167)

Ethical
Pertaining to right and wrong in conduct. Being in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice
Feedback and Reflection
Respond appropriately to feedback and maintain or improve performance. Take feedback and be a reflective practitioner.
Communication
Communication with stakeholders as authorized.
Follow protocol of how to communicate.
Communicate effectively with all team members.
Professional Boundaries
Avoid dual relationships, conflicts of interest, social media contacts. Always take notes.
Client Dignity
Be respectful and thoughtful about the client’s needs and wants.
Never do or say anything to cause embarrassment to the client.
Do not do something in front of your client that you would not do if working with a typical developing child.
How to Prepare for Data Collection
1. Read data from last session
2. Prepare material and programs for current session based on data from last session.
3. Determine what programs you plan to work on during the session.
4. Gather materials for those programs.
5. Set up the first set of programs so they are ready for the client when you begin your session.
The Role of the RBT in the Service Delivery System
Implement measurement, assessment, skill acquisition, behavior reduction, documentation and reporting, and maintain professional conduct in the scope of the practice under the direct supervision of a BCBA or BCaBA.
RBT Assisting with Individual Assessment Procedures
The RBT can interview stakeholders, gather baseline data by observing the client’s behaviors in his/her natural environment, or probe client by asking them to perform a task we are unsure they can perform without providing assistance.
Dealing with Stakeholders
The RBT should only communicate with stakeholders as authorized by the supervisor. Any specific questions should be deferred to the BCBA or BCaBA. If you do communicate you must be objective, use behavioral language, avoid speculation, stick to topic appropriate for an RBT.
Assist Training Stakeholders
RBT can assist with training stakeholders by giving them instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback with regard to behavioral skills training.
Report Other Variables
illness, relocation or change in medication.
Components of a Written Behavior Plan
1. Identify, describe, create a goal for a behavior in observable terms.
2. Assess antecedent/consequence that may maintain behavior.
3. Identify hypothesis of function of behavior.
4. Identify possible replacement behaviors.
5. Select and implement antecedent/consequence based interventions.
6. Create crisis intervention plan.
7. Implementation, modification, generalization and maintenance procedures.
Skill Acquisition Plan
7 Components
1. Identify the skill deficit
2. Create a goal to address the deficit
3. Establish a data measurement system
4. Take baseline data (Assess current skill level)
5. Select and implement an acquisition procedure.
6. Collect data to assess effectiveness of the procedure.
7. Modify existing plan based on assessment data. (Modify, if necessary) to maintain/increase effectiveness)
Prepare for Skill Acquisition Plan
1. Determine what occurred last session to decide where to start.
2. Select skill acquisition procedures to complete during session.
3. Prepare materials you will need for the skill acquisition (including data collection protocols).
5 Dimensions we can Shape
1. Topography
2. Frequency
3. Latency
4. Duration
5. Amplitude/Intensity
Applied Behavior Analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
The scientific study of principles of learning and behavior.
Behavior
An activity of living organisms.
What an individual does (how they respond in the situation).
It is observable and measurable.
Response
Specific instance of behavior.
4 types of Responses:
1. Correct
2. Incorrect
3. Non-Response
4. Prompted
Respondent Behavior
Untaught or unconditioned responses. Reflex.
Respondent Conditioning
New stimuli can acquire the ability to elicit responses.
Occurs through pairing of two stimuli.
Stimulus – Stimulus Pairing (S – S)
Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response.
i.e. Food is an unconditioned stimulus for a hungry animal and salivation is the unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Response
A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus.
i.e. Dogs salivating in the presence of food; yelping upon being bitten by an insect.
Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.
Conditioned Response
A behavior that does not come naturally, but must be learned by the individual by pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Reinforcers
(AKA primary reinforcers) Stimuli that do not require learning. (i.e. food, water, warmth, sleep, sexual stimulation)
Conditioned Reinforcers
(AKA secondary reinforcers) Neutral stimuli that have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers, or other conditioned reinforcers and through repeated pairing become reinforcers themselves. (i.e. stickers, sound, people)
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Stimuli that have been paired with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. (i.e. praise, attention, money, tokens)
Operant Behavior
Behavior that is controlled or influenced by consequences.
Behavior whose future frequency is determined by a history of consequences.
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Behavior followed by pleasant consequences tends to be repeated.
Behavior followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated.
Mand Training
(AKA request training) Training by asking for what you want.
Reinforcers
Pleasant events that follow a behavior that make behavior more likely to occur in the future.
Reinforcers strengthen behavior.
Punishers
Unpleasant events that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that a behavior will happen again in the future.
4 – Part Contingency of Operant Learning
1. MO – Motivating Operation
2. Antecedent
3. Behavior
4. Consequence
Motivating Operation
(AKA setting event) Contextual factors or conditions that influence behavior.
Influence how an individual is going to react. (i.e. Being deprived of food and water)
Antecedent
What occurs before a behavior that then influences behavior.
An environment or a stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
Prompt
Specific antecedent that directly facilitates performance of behavior.
Assistance provided to engage in desired behavior or response.
Consequence
Events that follow behavior and may influence it including increasing or decreasing it in the future.
May be reinforcers or punishers.
7 Dimensions of ABA
1. Applied
2. Behavioral
3. Analytic
4. Technological
5. Conceptual Systems
6. Effective
7. Generality
Frequency Data
(AKA Event Recording) A form of continuous measurement.
Data in which you tally each time the behavior occurs.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points. (i.e. throwing items, going to the gym, taking medicine, hitting another person)
Most frequently used type of data collection.
Duration Data
Data that is a calculation of the amount of time a behavior occurs.
The amount of time a response is performed.
Track from onset to offset.
Typically used for behaviors that last too long or too short. (i.e. on task behavior, social interactions, engaging in stereotypy)
Antecedent Behavior Consequence Data
(AKA ABC data) A combination of information about what happens before, during and after a behavior.
A form of continuous measurement.
Interval Recording
A form of discontinuous measurement.
Used for estimating duration of a behavior in which observers periodically look at client at predetermined intervals and record whether or not a behavior is occurring.
Partial Interval Recording
Did the behavior occur at least once during the short observation interval?
Overestimates the behavior.
Example: presence or absence of thumb-sucking within a series of time intervals.
Whole Interval Recording
Did the behavior occur for the whole interval that you are looking for it?
Underestimates the behavior.
Example: the total time devoted to remaining on task.
Momentary Time Sampling
Look up at the client immediately at pre-designated points and record whether the behavior occurred at that precise moment.
Example: presence or absence of client’s stereotypic behavior (stimming).
Response Latency
The amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target behavior occurs.
Permanent Product Recording Procedures
A type of measurement used when the behavior you are assessing results in a lasting product or outcome.
Example: number of written assignments completed;
Anecdotal Data
A method of descriptively recording the behavior emitted by the learner, the response of others, and information about the environment.
Trial by Trial Data
For each trial record target and whether response was:
– Correct
– Incorrect
– Non-Response
– Prompted
Graphing
Graphing is a method of representing data in a visual way so that we can se patterns and direction over time.
– Line Graph (most common) shows patterns, trends
– Bar Graph shows portions of a whole
– Pie Chart shows portions of a whole
Reliability
That the data taken is reliable and people who take the data agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
Individuals who take the data agree on the occurrence of the target behavior.
Looking for 85% agreed upon when doing reliability checks.
Inter-observer Reliability
The extent to which the individuals who observe a target behavior agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
Treatment Fidelity
The extent to which an intervention plan is implemented as planned and prescribed.
Topography
The physical form or shape of a behavior.
Function
The purpose or meaning of a behavior.
Operational Definition
What does the behavior look like, what happens exactly, what does it sound like?
4 Functions of Behavior
SEAT
1. Sensory
2. Escape/Avoidance
3. Attention
4. Tangible
Sensory Function
One of the four functions of behavior in which an individual tries to gain sensory output.
Individuals behave a certain way because it feels good to them.
Automatic Reinforcement
(AKA self-stimming) The behavior itself is reinforcing and is not dependent on social interaction or receiving a tangible item.
Escape/Avoidance Function
A function of behavior to escape or avoid having to do something.
Attention Function
A function of behavior in which the individual is reinforced by receiving attention from others.
Tangible Function
A function of behavior in which the individual wants to obtain a tangible item.
The individual wants a preferred item or activity.
Baseline Data
Data taken before an intervention takes place.
Describes the existing level of performance.
Functional Analysis
Done by an individual with specific training and under very controlled situations.
The qualified practitioner manipulates situations (antecedents/consequences) and takes data on behavior during those situations to test hypotheses about suspected maintaining variables.
Functional Behavior Assessment
(AKA FBA) Putting one or more Functional Analysis together.
Can consist of:
– Direct observation
– Interview
– Functional analysis (experimental)
– File Review
In an FBA behavior plans must include replacement skills.
Replacement Skills
Something appropriate that the client can do instead of the inappropriate behavior, that will serve the same purpose.
Should be included in Behavior Plans.
Teach replacement skills and
Develop an appropriate behavior plan
Name two important reasons for determining function of behavior.
3 Principles of Behavior
1. Reinforcement
2. Punishment
3. Extinction
Reinforcement
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and INCREASES the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Punishment
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior.
Extinction
Removal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.
Extinction Burst
Prior to the behavior decreasing you will see a temporary increase in behavior.
Immediate increase in frequency in responding.
Spontaneous Recovery
After a period of time the behavior may come back temporarily during extinction.
Rewards
Something that we THINK will might act as a reinforcer.
Rewards are the THING, reinforcement is the ACTION.
(i.e. If giving a child a cooke after they clean their room does not increase the chances of them cleaning their room again in the future then the cookie was just a reward and NOT a reinforcer)
Positive Reinforcement
Pleasant or favorable event that follows a behavior – it is ADDED to the situation and increases the likelihood or probability that the behavior will occur in the future.
Negative Reinforcement
REMOVAl of an aversive event that follows a behavior (“relief”) and increases the likelihood that the behavior will continue in the future.
(i.e. cleaning your room and your mom stops nagging; hitting snooze on an alarm and the beeping stops; putting on your seatbelt and the dinging stops)
Secondary Reinforcement
(AKA Conditioned Reinforcement) Occurs when neutral stimuli have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers or other conditioned reinforcers repeatedly thus making the neutral stimuli become conditioned reinforcers.
Conditioned Punisher
Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers.
Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behavior occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.
Unconditioned Punisher
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment.
(i.e. shock, physical pain, loud noises, painful stimulation that can cause tissue damage, light, sound, temperature)
Preference Assessment
Aims to identify an individual’s favorite things so that they can be used as rewards or potential “reinforcers” for desired behavior. CSDA
1. Caregiver interview
2. Surveys
3. Direct Observation
4. Assessment Method
Caregiver Interview Preference Assessment
Involves obtaining information from the individual’s parents, friends and teachers about what the individual likes/prefers.
Surveys/Inventories Preference Assessment
Surveys obtain information about potential reinforcers and also rank potential reinforcers in order of preference.
Direct Observation Preference Assessment
Identify what is motivating the individual.
The more time spent with an item, the stronger the presumed preference.
Assessment Method Preference Assessment
Presenting objects and activities systematically to the individual to reveal a hierarchy or ranking of preference.
1. Single item/single stimulus
2. Forced choice
3. Multiple choice
– multiple choice with replacement
– multiple choice without replacement
Single Item Preference Assessment
Single Item/Single Stimulus
Objects and activities are presented to the individual one by one.
Data are recorded on how long the person engages with each item or activity.
Forced Choice Preference Assessment
Simultaneous presentation of two items or activities and individual is asked to choose one.
Most frequently selected item will likely be the most potent reinforcer.
Multiple Stimuli With Replacement
Item chosen by the learner remains in the array and all other items that were not selected are replaced with new ones.
Multiple Stimuli Without Replacement
Chosen item is removed from the array, the order or replacement of the remaining items is rearranged, and the next trial begins with a reduced number of items in the array.
Premack Principle
Make access to a high probability behavior contingent on performing a low probability behavior.
The opportunity to engage in more probable behaviors (or activities) will reinforce less probable behavior.
Grandma’s Rule: If you want to go out to play, you have to eat your vegetables first.
Satiation
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.
Rule Governed Behavior
Behavior either verbal or nonverbal under the control of verbal antecedents.
(i.e. “If I study 2 hours every day, I will get an A on the exam next month”)
Response Blocking
The source of reinforcement is blocked. A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learning begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent the completion of the target behavior.
Random Rotation
The random presentation of mastered items, free from pattern (as if flipping a coin repeatedly).
Block Trials
Repeatedly asking for an item for a designated number of trials, and then moving to another item for the same number of trials.
Mass Trials
Repeatedly presenting the same SD (discriminative stimulus) and R (response) pair for several trials in a row.
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Providing reinforcement each time the behavior/response occurs.
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is delivered after only SOME of the desired responses occur.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or “fixed” number of responses.
Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable (variable) number of responses.
This schedule is the most resistant to extinction.
Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
The first correct response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed.
Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule
Where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable (variable) amount of time has elapsed.
Positive Punishment
Presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
Negative Punishment
The termination or removal of a stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
(i.e. taking away a toy when a child talks back; time out from positive reinforcement for yelling)
Response Cost
A type of punishment also known as Negative Reinforcement.
Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement.
Time out from Positive Reinforcement
The withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specific amount of time.
A form of Negative Punishment
Contingent Exercise
Perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.
(i.e. touch toes 20 times contingent on biting self)
Overcorrection
Effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem behavior.
Time-Out
Brief removal of all social positive reinforcement.
Positive Behavior Support
A function-based approach to eliminate challenging behaviors and replace them with socially appropriate behaviors.
– Focus on positive behaviors
– Alter the ecology
– Teach new skills
– Reinforce the absence of behavior
Focused Support Strategies
Interventions to reduce or eliminate the need for reactive strategies and gain quicker control over behavior.
– High density of reinforcing events
– Non-contingent delivery of reinforcing events
– Eliminate antecedents that cue challenging behavior
Stimulus Control
Individual behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another in its absence.
A type of Focused Support Strategy
Stimulus Satiation
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.
Token Economies
Reinforcement systems in which tokens are earned for a variety of behaviors and are used to purchase or exchange for a variety of backup reinforcers such as food, activities, trips, toys.
Differential Reinforcement
Reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement from another response class.
Behavior receiving reinforcement should increase while the behavior for which reinforcement is being withheld should decrease.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors
DRO – Providing a reinforcer after a particular time frame without the target behavior.
For example engaging in any other behavior except the target behavior.
(i.e. every 5 minutes without hitting, individual receives a sticker)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding
Entails reinforcing for reductions in the frequency of the undesired behavior.
Often used when individual is engaging in a behavior too frequently.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors
DRA – Focus on increasing a desirable alternative behavior that directly or indirectly interferes with the performance of the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. reinforce knitting or giving a self manicure instead of biting nails; reinforce appropriate language instead of punishing swearing at others)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors
DRI – Similar to DRA but you choose and alternative behavior to reinforce that, if performed, would be incompatible with the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. playing nicely vs. fighting; on task behavior vs. off task behavior; in seat vs. out of seat; deep breathing vs. yelling)
Discrete Trial Training
DTT – Structured instructional methodology used to teach new behaviors
Designed to maximize a learner’s potential by presenting information in a three-part teaching unit.
Based on Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence format.
A – B – C (Stimulus – Response – Consequence)
Main objective is to teach children how to learn from their natural environment and make learning reinforcing.
Errorless Learning
Teaching procedures that are designed in such a way that the learning does not have to – and does not – make mistakes as she or he learns new information or procedures.
DTT is Errorless Learning.
Skinnner: “Errors are not necessary for learning to occur.”
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
Used in DTT: Environmental cue or instruction that signals that reinforcement is available for a target behavior.
Response (R)
Used in DTT: The behavior in which an individual engages. 4 types of response:
1. Correct
2. Incorrect
3. Non-Response
4. Prompted
Reinforcing Stimulus (SR)
Used in DTT: The consequence following the individual’s response that changes the future likelihood with which the behavior will recur.
Reinforcement should be given for a correct response.
Should be delivered immediately (0 – 5 seconds is ideal).
Inter-Trial Interval
The time interval between presentation of the consequence for one trial and the presentation of the SD for the next trial.
Prompt Hierarchy
The so called “pyramid” of the various levels of prompting.
We need to establish a hierarchy of prompts from the least to most or most to least intrusive for each instructional task.
Transfer of Stimulus Control
Process by which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD.
Prompt Fading
The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD.
Stimulus Fading
Exaggerate some physical dimension of the relevant stimulus to help the individual respond correctly.
Prompt is within the stimulus itself.
Can be used for color or size determination.
Discrimination Training
Procedure to teach between two targets.
Trial training using phases.
(i.e. phases 1 – 6 Mass Trials of target, Block Trials, and Random Rotation)
Shaping
A process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior.
Chaining
A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition.
When components are linked together, they form a chain that produces a terminal outcome.
Task Analysis
Involves breaking a complex skill into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks.
Forward Chaining
Training begins the link with the first behavior in the sequence.
Training only occurs on the steps currently mastered and current step (no training on steps after that).
Backward Chaining
Training begins the link with the last behavior in the sequence.
Trainer performs all but the last step until the learner masters the last step.
Then trainer performs all but the lasts two steps until learner masters the last two steps and so on.
Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
Follow same procedure as backward chaining but not every step in the task analysis is trained.
Natural Environment Training (NET)
Is loosely structured, and uses or contrives a leaner’s motivation and activities and not an exclusively teacher-selected set of materials, as the basis for the lesson.
Often used to teach child to mand or request.
Verbal Behavior
Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person’s behavior.
Involves a social interaction between speakers and listeners.
Listener reinforces the speaker.
Mand, Tact, Echoic, Intraverbal, Textual, Transcription
6 Elementary Verbal Operants
Mand
Short for demand, command or reprimand.
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants.
Only type of verbal operant that directly benefits the speaker b/c the mand allows the speaker to receive reinforcers.
Tact
Short for contact.
A type of verbal operant in which speaker names things and actions that the speaker had direct contact with through any of the sense modes.
Echoic
A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker.
Occurs in response to other verbal behavior.
Listener is “echoing” what they hear.
Intraverbal
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others.
– Conversation
– Answering questions
– Filling in the blank
Textual
Reading written words.
(i.e. A child says shoe because the word “shoe” is written)
Transcription
Writing and spelling words that are spoken.
(i.e. A child writes “shoe” because they hear the word “shoe”)
Generalization
When the effort of reinforcement is extended beyond the conditions in which the training has taken place or to behaviors other than those included in training.
Stimulus Generalization
Generalization or transfer of a response to situations other than those in which the training takes place.
It has taken place if a response reinforced in one stimulus setting also increases in other stimulus settings.
Across people: The learner’s ability to respond to people other than those involved in the original teaching
Across environments: The learner’s ability to respond in different locations other than the “table and chair”
(i.e. responds to different SD’s for same behavior like “sit here”, “sit down”, “have a seat”)
Response Generalization
The changes in behaviors or responses other than those that have been trained or developed.
(i.e. you teach a child to put away toys following the SD “clean up” and the child also begins to throw away garbage and put books on the shelf)
Maintenance
Refers to maintaining responses over time.
So something leaned at time 1 would also be evident at times 2, 3 and 4.
Implement Generalization and Maintenance Procedures
Start by slowly fading prompts and using natural reinforcement contingencies; use multiple settings, people and stimuli; train loosely and use random rotation; use variable reinforcement schedules; teach self management and reinforce generally when it happens.
Contingency Contract
A document that specifies a contingent relationship between:
– The completion of a specific behavior
– Access to a specific reinforcer
Same as a behavioral contract.
This document should serve to hold both parties accountable (student & teacher).
Token Economy
A behavior change system with the following components:
– Specific behaviors to reinforce
– Tokens or points for emitting those behaviors
– A back-up reinforcer for cash in of tokens/points
Tokens themselves are not desirable…the back-up should be!
Positive Practice
A form of Positive Punishment
Contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem, a specified number of times.
Planned Ignoring
Social reinforcers – usually attention, physical contact or verbal interaction – are removed for a brief period.
Validity
Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced.
Rate
Used in calculating data. Frequency with the addition of a time component. Also a form of Event Recording.
Registered Behavior Technician
A paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA or a BCaBA.
The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of skill-acquisition and behavior-reduction plans developed by the supervisor.
The RBT may also collect data and conduct certain types of assessments (i.e. stimulus preference assessments)
The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans. It is the responsibility of the designated RBT supervisor to determine which tasks an RBT may perform as a function of his or her training, experience, and competence.
Total Task Chaining
The chaining procedure which teaches each step of the chain during each training session.
Professional and Ethical Compliance Code
– Maintaining confidentiality
– Maintaining records
– Documentation of professional work and research
– Records and Data
– Behavior analytic assessment
– Conforming with laws and regulations
– Accuracy and use of data
Documentation and Reporting
Records and data collected by BCBAs and RBTs must be retained for at least _____ years and as otherwise required by law.
Contingency
Refers to and if_____, then_____ relationship between a behavior and a consequence.
Treatment Plan Modifications
RBT’s assist BCBAs in making treatment plan modifications based on:
1. Record
2. Visual analysis of graphed data
3. Science
Parent requests are NOT a major factor in determining the current success of a plan or analyzing data to determine next steps.
1. Be honest
2. Follow through with obligations
3. Disclose your experience in specific areas.
Ways to show integrity?
Incidental Teaching
Involves creating an environment in which students’ interests are easily fostered and nurtured, and one in which students can be most successfully motivated. Also known as Natural Environment Training
1. Vary stimulus conditions over time
2. Make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Modify reinforcers
3 General Techniques of Generalization
1. Have multiple teachers and styles / vary the stimuli & environment.
2. In the beginning conditions might be artificial, make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Use secondary/conditioned reinforcement. Thin the reinforcement schedule for primary reinforcers.
Drawbacks to Punishment
Mis-used or Over-used: May lead to negative reinforcement of the punisher.
Lack of generalization: May lead to decrease in behavior only in the presence of the punisher.
May increase or escalate the behavior (provoke aggression).
Not always effective in the long term.
Reactive Strategies

Strategies designed to manage the behavior at the time it occurs (in the moment).

These strategies are managed situationally to provide safety and prevent the escalation of the behaviors.
NOT meant to change behavior over time.
– Facilitative Strategies (help solve the problem)
– Redirect to a competing activity (give an instruction or a “help me” instruction
i.e. crisis intervention strategies

Proactive Strategies
Strategies designed to produce changes over time.
Strategies designed to provide a better mesh between client’s needs and the environments in which he/she behaves.
– Token economies (Focused Support Strategy)
– Differential reinforcement (Focused Support Strategy)
– Discrete trial training

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2 thoughts on “RBT Practice Exam: 85 Questions for Free”

  1. Kerry M Gainer

    I have a question about one of your questions.
    39. Reinforcement provided every 10 minutes that behavior occurs.

    FI-10
    FR-10
    VI-10
    VR-10
    My answer is FI-10. I am not understanding why the correct answer FR-10? Can you please elaborate on that answer.

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