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Behavior or signs observed indicative of a possible concussion
- Loss of consciousness
- Appears dazed or stunned
- Appears confused
- Forgets plays
- Unsure of game, score, or opponent
- Moves clumsily
- Answers questions slowly
- Shows behavior or personality changes
- Can’t recall events prior to or after the injury
Symptoms reported by a player indicative of a possible concussion
- Balance problems or dizziness
- Double or fuzzy vision
- Sensitivity to light or noise
- Feeling sluggish
- Feeling foggy or groggy
- Concentration or memory problems
A concussion is a brain injury that disrupts normal brain function. To have a concussion, an athlete does not need to be unconscious (be “knocked out”). Indicators of a possible concussion.
- Concussion is a common injury with about __% of all student athletes in contact sports suffering a concussion during their season.
- It is recommended that student athletes have a baseline test of neurocognitive functioning because:
• The test will tell the parents which sports the child should play
• The test provides a baseline so that if a concussion occurs, there is something to compare brain function after the injury.
• The test will look for abnormalities that may interfere with the child’s ability to play sports.
- True or False: Amnesia is a rare side effect of a concussion.
- If you compared it to a food, your brain has the consistency of:
• Cooking oil
- True or False: A concussion can only be caused by a blow to the head.
- True or False: Children who have suffered a concussion should rest mentally as well as physically.
- If the symptoms of a concussion last for weeks, this is called:
• Post-concussion syndrome
• Concussive edema
• Concussion complication disorder
• Reflexive concussion
- Which of the following is not a significant risk factor for the problem outlined in question 7
• Being older
• Being female
• Having a sports-related concussion
- Which of the following is not a symptom of a concussion?
nausea or vomiting
feeling anxious or irritable
- Which of the following is not a common reason that high school sports injuries occur?
drinking too much water during the game
wearing the wrong type of shoes
lack of safety equipment
- Which is a good way to heal from a concussion?
Physical and mental rest
Exercise and problem-solving video games
- True or false: If you don’t lose consciousness, you don’t have a concussion.
- When it comes to a head injury in sports, the best thing to remember is:
“No pain, no gain!”
“When in doubt, sit out!”
-highest sports : football, wrestling, girls/boys soccer and girls basketball
-game concussion are higher than practice
-concussion may result in neuropathological changes but the acute clinical symptoms largely reflect a functional disturbance rather than a structural injury
-the head striking an object, the brain undergoing an acceleration/deceleration movement without direct external trauma to the head
-a foreign body penetrating the brain, forces generated from events such as a blast or explosion, or other force yet to be defined
-increase in amounts of ATP
-increase in glucose metabolism
-decrease in cerebral blood flow
-decrease in oxygen metabolism
-spike in potassium causes the dulling effect and that takes time to regulate
-occurs from shearing, stretching or traction on small nerves leading to poor axonal transport, focal swelling and possible axonal disconnection
-onset of second concussion before completely healing from the initial
-rapid swelling of brain tissue
-signs/symptoms: dilated pupils, loss of eye movement, respiratory failure, death
college = 7 days
high school = 10-26 days
youth = 30 days `
-however, post “migraine symptom complex” had a longer recovery
-*dizziness sideline is a predictor of recovery greater than 21 days
-17 to 46% oh high school and college athletes have symptoms of anxiety, depression, or irritability
– no evidence that pre existing mood disorders predispose athletes to concussion
-anxiety, depression, and other psychological impairments may affect NP testing
-baseline score are lower in this population
-dizziness (2nd most common)
-presence of mood, learning, attention, or migraine disorders
-baseline testing – impact remains unclear
-assessment and cognitive testing
-sideline test included 22 item
-PTs are using this for baseline measurement during initial eval
-physical exam including c/s and brain injury
–immobilize spine if c spine can not be cleared and transfer to E
–brain injury – mental status, unequal pupil reaction and worsening symptoms
-standardized assessment tool
-a player should be continually monitored if kept sideline for deteriorating mental status
-if a concussion is thought to have not occurred, the player may not return to the game with serial evaluation
-observe C/spine and vision
-dizziness, peripher vs. central
-double leg stance, SLS, tandem
– pt is timed for 20 seconds and the number
– errors include: hands off iliac crest, opening eyes, step/fall, moving hips >30 degrees abduction, lifting forefoot or heel
-SLS eyes open and closed
-squats with Bosu
-saccade training and visual pursuit
-perform task, rest let Sx decrease, then repeat
-light aerobic exercise <70% max HR
-non contact drills
-full contact drills
-return to play
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