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Chapter 11 Chemistry Test Answer Key

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The chemical reactions that occur inside the human body are extremely complex. One of the main reactions that occurs is the metabolism of glucose, and another reaction is the liver’s detoxification. The metabolism of glucose is one of the main factors that affect the levels of insulin that are generated by the liver. The metabolism of glucose is also related to a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The human body produces a lot of glucose. This excess glucose is quickly transported to the cells in the body by the bloodstream and is rapidly processed into glucose. When the body is in an energy deficit, it will try to use any glucose it can find.

The liver then converts the glucose into the ketone body acetoacetate, which has a very powerful detoxifying effect on the body. In addition to the normal conversion process, the liver also produces other substances such as urea, bile salts, and purine.

Chemistry Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions Answer Key

chemical equationa symbolic way of describing a chemical reaction
skeleton equationa chemical equation that does not indicate the amounts of substances involved
catalysta substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction
coefficientsnumbers used to balance a chemical equation
balanced equationan equation in which each side has the same number of atoms of each element
reactantssubstances that undergo chemical change
productsnew substances formed in a chemical reaction
combination reactiona reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single substance
decomposition reactionreaction in which a single compound is broken down into two or more products
single-replacement reactionreaction in which atoms of one element replace atoms of a second element in a compound
combustion reactionreaction of a compound with oxygen to produce energy
complete ionic equationequation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as free ions
spectator ionsions that do not participate in a reaction
net ionic equationequation that indicates only the particles that take part in a reaction
precipitatesolid product of reaction in solution
aqueous reactionreaction that occurs in water
ionic solubility rulesused to predict whether a precipitate will form in an aqueous reaction
soluble saltssalts of alkali metals and ammonia; nitrate and chlorate salts; sulfate salts (except with Pb2+, Ag+, Hg22+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+); chloride salts (except with Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+)
insoluble compoundscarbonates, phosphates, chromates, sulfides, hydroxides
Avogadro’s Numberanother name for mole
6.02×10^23mole (in number form)
atomic massthe mass of an element as listed on the periodic table
molar massnumber of grams in 1 mole (=to the numerical value of the atomic mass); the mass of a mole of an element
standard temperature pressure (STP)STP
molecular formulagives the exact number of atoms present in a molecule
empirical formulatells the ratio of different elements in a molecule
chemical reactionsreactions that involve chemical changes in matter resulting in new substances
hvlight symbol
shockmechanical symbol
elecelectrical symbol
triangleheat symbol
evidence of a chemical changecolor change, gas, emission of light, emission of heat, formation of precipitate
synthesisA + B → AB
decompositionAB → A + B
single displacementA + BC → AC + B
double displacementAB + CD → AD + BC
synthesis reactionwhen two or more reactants combine together to make one product
decomposition reactionone reactant breaks down into two or more products
single replacement reactionone atom displaces another and replaces it in a compound
double replacement reactiontwo ionic compounds exchange ions
combustion reactionreactant + oxygen → energy released + oxygen-containing products
representative particleatoms, molecules, or formula units in a substance
avogadro’s hypothesisequal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
molar volumethe volume of a mole of an element (22.4 liters)
percent compositionthe relative amounts of the elements in a compound (not empirical formula)

Pearson Chemistry: Describing Chemical Reactions

Here is a summary of key terms and concepts related to chemical equations:

  • Chemical equation: Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. Shows the reactants, products, direction of reaction, and relative amounts (coefficients).
  • Skeleton equation: Shows only chemical formulas of reactants and products without coefficients.
  • Catalyst: Substance that increases the reaction rate but is not consumed.
  • Coefficients: Numbers placed in front of chemical formulas in an equation to balance the number of atoms.
  • Balanced equation: Equation where the number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides.
  • Reactants: Starting substances in a chemical reaction.
  • Products: Substances formed by a chemical reaction.
  • Combination reaction: Two or more reactants form one product.
  • Decomposition reaction: One reactant breaks down to form multiple products.
  • Single-replacement reaction: One element replaces another element in a compound.
  • Combustion reaction: Reactant combines with oxygen, releasing energy.
  • Ionic solubility rules: Used to predict if precipitate will form when mixing aqueous ionic solutions.
  • Avogadro’s number: 6.02 x 10^23 items/mole.
  • Molar mass: Grams per mole of a substance.
  • Empirical formula: Simplest whole number ratio of elements in a compound.
  • Chemical change: Bonds are broken and formed, accompanied by energy changes.

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