Sociology Chapter 3 Answers

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What group defines themselves through a rejection of the mainstream:
– Beatniks
– Hepcats
– Hipsters
– Hippies
Hipsters
Society and culture _____.
– Could not exist without each other
– Are unrelated
– Are the same thing
– Could not exist together
Could not exist without each other
Elise travels across Thailand with her friends and, to her surprise, finds the country quite unlike the United States. “I hate the food,” she tells her family at home. “I hate the language, I hate the weird customs and awful music. America is clearly the best place to be.” This is an example of _______.
– Paradigms
– Xenocentrism
– Moral relativism
– Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism
Xenocentrism is:
– The opposite of cultural relativism
– The opposite of cultural universalism
– The same as cultural imperitivism
– The opposite of ethnocentrism
The opposite of ethnocentrism
A cultural universal is:
– An object or a belonging of a group.
– A pattern or trait common to all societies.
– The ideas, attitudes and beliefs of a particular society.
– A written document outlining appropriate behavior
A pattern or trait common to all societies
Many Americans pay for haircuts, trips to the dentist, or transportation on the metro and bus systems. These actions support the notion of capitalism, an example of _____.
– Non-material culture
– Material culture
– A cultural universal
– The counterculture
Non-material culture
Which of the following is an example of a cultural universal?
– Putting your cell phone on silent during a Broadway production
– Holding hands with your best friend
– Incest taboos
– Marrying the partner whom your parents have chosen for you
Incest taboos
Kurt and Mitch visit an Amish village on a class trip. “Let’s see if we can round up some old radios and appliances and drop them off for them later this week. I think they’ll appreciate it. They just don’t understand what they’re missing.” Mitch rolls his eyes. Kurt’s perspective is an example of _______.
– Behavioral normativity
– Cultural imperialism
– Material culture
– Ideal culture
Cultural Imperialism
Which of the following is an example of cultural relativism?
– Ingrid becoming upset over the course language used in the Australian Outback.
– Andy marrying a woman who does not practice his religion, though his parents disprove.
– Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meats with the local tribe she is studying.
– Joseph protesting the Running of the Bulls while visiting Pamplona.
Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meats with the local tribe she is studying
Angelica visits Thailand with her family. When she wears short-shorts and tank tops while visiting a series of temples during her first week, she is met with hostility from the locals. She feels she no longer knows how to behave or interact with those outside her family. Angelica is experiencing _____.
– Cultural imperialism
– Culture shock
– Material culture
– Xenocentricism
Culture Shock
The term values can be defined as:
– The tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.
– A culture’s standard for discerning what’s good and just in society.
– Scripture found within the Bible.
– Federal laws and regulations.
A culture’s standard for discerning what’s good and just in society
Janet is visiting her childhood friend in the Hamptons. Janet wears ripped jeans and Chuck Taylors to an infamous “White” party. The majority of party-goers refuse to socialize with her. Janet is experiencing a form of ____.
– Formal sanction
– Xenocentrism
– Social control
– Ethnocentricity
Xenocentrism
Which of the following is NOT an example of a formal norm within the United States?
– Driving on the right hand side of the road
– Crossing streets on cross-walks
– Paying taxes
– Making eye contact while speaking
Making eye contact while speaking
What is one difference between a more and a folkway?
– Mores encourage social rebellion; folkways do not.
– Mores are legally acceptable to violate; folkways are not.
– Mores are constructed based on norms; folkways are not.
– Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.
Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.
The term language can be defined as:
– Gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words that help people understand the world.
– A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.
– The exchange of gestures and signals for the purpose of reaching a consensus.
– Communication grounded in ideals, norms, and values.
A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.
MTV’s widely-watched TV series The Jersey Shore is an example of _____, while the obscure works of playwright Sam Shepard are an example of ______.
– High culture; popular culture
– Popular culture; high culture
– High culture; low culture
– Jersey culture; low culture
Popular culture; high culture
Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?
– The yuppie craze of the 1980’s
– The Kardashian obsession of the 2010’s
– The hippie movement of the 1960’s
– The disco invasion of the 1970’s
The hippie movement of the 1960’s
In 1999, Sean Fanning, John Fanning, and Sean Parker invented Napster, a global, free-of-charge, peer-to-peer music sharing program. Prior to Napster, no such program existed. The three men created _____.
– An innovation
– A discovery
– A culture lag
– A cultural universal
An innovation
In the early 2000’s, The L Word and Queer as Folk debuted on Showtime. Both shows depicted the lives of members of the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) community, thus giving viewers a glimpse into a ______.
– More
– Formal Sanction
– Subculture
– Social relativism
Subculture
Which of the following is an example of an informal sanction?
– The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee club.
– Lilly being sent to prison because she failed to pay her taxes.
– Brett illegally downloading the new Black Keys album because he couldn’t afford to buy it.
– Sarah buying Lady Gaga tickets from a scalper because the show sold out.
The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee Club
Culture includes which of the following items?
A. language
B. Pods
C. waving “hello’
D. Buffet Restaurants
F. All the Above
All the above
An example of material culture is ______.
A. hand gestures
B. language
C. cars
D. Customs
Cars
Material Culture or Nonmaterial Culture?
Match the object, activity, or concept with either material culture or nonmaterial culture.
Prayer, Flags, Greetings, Patriotism, Greetings, Churches, Coca -cola
Material : Churches, Flags, Coca – cola
Nonmaterial: partriotism, greetings and prayers.
Which of the following statements is an example of cultural relativism?
a. Porridge is something only poor people eat.
b. Fast-food restaurants should have the same menu items worldwide.
c. Congee and rice porridge are common Chinese dishes, so expected at a Chinese restaurant.
d. It’s a weird idea to have porridge at a fast-food place.
Congee and rice porridge are common Chinese dishes, so expected at a Chinese restaurant.
The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior is
a. culturally universal.
b. culturally relative.
c. pragmatism.
d. sociobiology.
sociobiology.
Cultural relativism is
a. viewing behavior from the perspective of one’s culture.
b. viewing behavior from the perspective of the culture in which the behavior occurs.
c. recognizing that people are born with culture.
d. based on the fact that culture is a rigid system of controls.
viewing behavior from the perspective of one’s culture.
In terms of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, James could not see examples of poka-yoke when Derrick could because
a. he speaks a different language.
b. we can conceive of something only if we have a term for it in our vocabulary.
c. the men come from collectivistic societies.
d. James is unable to acquire new languages.
we can conceive of something only if we have a term for it in our vocabulary.
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, what needs to happen in order for James to be able to identify examples of poka-yoke?
a. James would have to learn Japanese.
b. James would need to move to an individualistic society.
c. James would need to learn about poka-yoke.
d. Nothing would help James identify examples of poka-yoke.
James would need to learn about poka-yoke.

Formal Sanction or Informal Sanction?

Match each example of a sanction to either formal or informal norms. Notice that both positfirve and negative sanctions are included.
Firing from a job, smile, salary bonus, thumbs down, humiliation, jail sentence, diploma

Formal : Jail sentence, diploma, salary bonus, firing from a job,
informal: smile, clapping, thumbs down, humiliation
People’s need for food, shelter, and clothing are examples of what George Murdock referred to as
norms.
folkways.
cultural practices.
cultural universals.
cultural universals.

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