Chapter 20 – An Industrial Society

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Thomas Edison
The inventor responsible for the replacement of gaslights with electric lights; his 1880’s factory produced a million light bulbs a year
Alexander Graham Bell
The inventor who used electricity to invent the telephone in 1876
Transcontinental Railroad
The Central Pacific- Union Pacific railroad across the center of the United States
Standard Time
A system that divided the United States into four time zones, used in 1883 and official adopted in 1918
Robber Baron
Term for a business leader who becomes wealthy through dishonest methods
John D. Rockefeller
He controlled the oil industry in the late 1800’s through his Standard Oil Trust
Andrew Carnegie
He controlled the steel industry in the late 1800’s by purchasing mines, ships, railroads, and mills – the means of steel production
Monopoly
A company that wipes out its competitors and controls an industry
Trust
A legal body created to hold stock in many companies, often in the same industry
Philanthropist
A person who gives large sums of money to charities
The Gilded Age
Term for the late 1800’s era of wealth, corrupt politics, and widespread poverty
Mother Jones
Nickname for Mary Harris Jones, beloved labor leader in the late 1800’s
Knights of Labor
This national federation of workers form all different trades, formed after the Civil War, admitted women and African Americans
Socialism
An economic system where work and profit is shared, and the members of a society are equal owners of the businesses
Haymarket Square
Chicago location of a violent conflict between striking union members and the police
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers
Eugene V. Debs
President of the American Railway Union jailed over the 1894 Pullman Strike
What factors contributed to industrial growth in the United States?
Plentiful natural resources, growing population, improved transportation, high immigration, new inventions investment capital, and government assistance.
What caused steel making industry to boom and why?
The steel-making industry boomed mainly because of a new manufacturing technique called the Bessemer steel process. this allowed steel to be produced at a much faster pace allowing the industry to boom.
How do inventors protect their rights to what they invent?
They can patent it.
What did Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell intent?
Thomas Edison invented light bulb and phonograph. Alexander invented the telephone.
Why did the federal government want a transcontinental railroad built?
To encourage people to settle the West and develop its economy.
How did the government encourage the building of the railroad?
The government lent them millions of dollars to build tracks. They also gave them 20 miles of public land for every mile of track they laid.
Why was standard time created?
Solar time caused problems for people who scheduled trains crossing several times zones and for travelers
Why did the numbers of corporations grow in the late 1800s?
Laws regulated corporations led to growth of a few giant corporations that dominated American industry. Also, people demanded for more items.
Who is an example of a robber baron? why?
Jay Gould was a robber baron because,he made a lot of his money using methods that are illegal today- such as bribing officials and selling fake stock.
Why was the South so much less industrial than the North?
South was more agricultural and farming were the major industries, while as in the north it was factories. The farming way of life in the south and southerners wanting to hold on to that life was one of the causes to the civil war.
What is a monopoly?
A company that eliminates its competitors and controls an industry.
What are trusts, and why did some people think they were bad for country?
A trust is a legal body created to hold stock in many companies, often in the same industry. Trust controlled all oil refining and was able to set high price for oil. The public didn’t like to buy oil at a high price and they couldn’t buy it from anyone else.

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