Juanita Is Preparing To Go Grocery Shopping And Is Making A List. However…

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Juanita is preparing to go grocery shopping and is making a list. However, when she gets to the store she realizes that she has forgotten the list. Which of the following best describes the list of items Juanita is likely to remember:

A. eggs, milk, cheese, bread

B. eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup

C. eggs, milk, cheese

D. eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup, lettuce, pickles

Answer

If Juanita forgets her shopping list at home, she will probably buy the items she usually buys when she goes to grocery store.

Juanita is preparing to go grocery shopping and is making a list. However, when she gets to the store, she realizes that she has forgotten the list. Juanita is likely to remember eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup, lettuce, pickles list.

Memory is defined as information that is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding is the first stage of memory, where we take in new information. Storage is the second stage of memory, where we keep the information that we have encoded. Retrieval is the third stage of memory, where we access stored information.

 

Memory
Memory

-the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

-storehouse of accumulated learning

encoding
get information into our brain
storage
retaining information
retrieval
getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory

-the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

-“to be remembered”

short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while calling) before the information is stored or forgotten.
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
working memory

-visuospatial sketchpad

-central executive (general purpose workspace)

-a newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

How does the working memory concept update the classic Atkinson-Shiffrin three-stage information-processing model?
The newer idea of a working memory emphasizes the active processing that we now know takes place in Atkinson-Shiffrin’s short-term memory stage. While the Atkinson-Shiffrin model viewed short-term memory as a temporary holding space, working memory plays a key role in processing new information and connecting it to previously stored information.
What are two basic functions of working memory?
(1) Active processing of incoming visual and auditory information, and (2) focusing our spotlight of attention.
implicit memory/non-declarative memory

-retention of learned skills, or classically conditioned associations, without conscious awareness.

-motor learning, emotion, habit

automatic processing
unconscious encoding of everyday information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
explicit memories/declarative memory

-retention of facts and personal events you can consciously retrieve. (people and events)

-stored in hippocampus

effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
parallel processing:
the processing of many aspects of a problem at the same time; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions.
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
mnemonics:
[nih-MON-iks] memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
What is the difference between automatic and effortful processing, and what are some examples of each?
Automatic processing occurs unconsciously (automatically) for such things as the sequence and frequency of a day’s events, and reading and understanding words in our own language(s). Effortful processing requires us to focus attention and make an effort, as when we work hard to learn new material in class, or new lines for a play.
At which of Atkinson-Shiffrin’s three memory stages would iconic and echoic memory occur?
sensory memory
spacing effect:
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
testing effect:
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as the retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
Which strategies are better for long-term retention: cramming and rereading material, or spreading out learning over time and repeatedly testing yourself?
Although cramming and rereading may lead to short-term gains in knowledge, distributed practice and repeated self-testing will result in the greatest long-term retention.
semantic
facts and general knowledge
episotic
experienced events
hippocampus

-a limbic system neural center that is our brain’s equivalent of a “save” button

-deep inside temporal lobe

-stores explicit memories

memory consolidation:
the neural storage of a long-term memory.
Which parts of the brain are important for implicit memory processing, and which parts play a key role in explicit memory processing?
The cerebellum and basal ganglia are important for implicit memory processing. The hippocampus and frontal lobes are key to explicit memory formation.
Your friend has experienced brain damage in an accident. He can remember how to tie his shoes but has a hard time remembering anything you tell him during a conversation. How can implicit vs. explicit information processing explain what’s going on here?
Our explicit conscious memories of facts and episodes differ from our implicit memories of skills (such as tying shoelaces) and classically conditioned responses. The parts of the brain involved in explicit memory processing may have sustained damage in the accident, while the parts involved in implicit memory processing appear to have escaped harm.
Frontal lobes and hippocampus:
Frontal lobes and hippocampus:
explicit memory formation
Cerebellum and basal ganglia:
Cerebellum and basal ganglia:
implicit memory formation
Amygdala:
Amygdala:
emotion-related memory formation
flashbulb memory:

-a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

-unforgettable moments (tragedy, joy or near misses)

-stored in long-term storage

-vivid but can also change over time

synapses
the sites where nerve cells communicate with one another by means of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters)
long-term potentiation (LTP)

-increased neural efficiency

-enables learning and memory

Which brain area responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories?
the amygdala
Increased efficiency at the synapses is evidence of the neural basis of learning and memory. This is called _______ – _______
long-term potentiation
recall:

-memory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

-retrieving information out of storage and into your conscious awareness. Example: a fill-in-the-blank question.

-stored memory to active memory

recognition:
-memory demonstrated by identifying items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
relearning:

-memory demonstrated by time saved when learning material a second time.

-learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. Example: Reviewing the first weeks of course work to prepare for your final exam, you will relearn the material more easily than you did originally.

Multiple-choice questions test our

A. recall.
B. recognition.
C. learning.
D. sensory memory.

B. recognition.
Fill-in-the blank questions test our _______.
recall
If you want to be sure to remember what you’re learning for an upcoming test, would it be better to use recall or recognition to check your memory? Why?
It would be better to test your memory with recall (such as with short-answer or fill-in-the-blank self-test questions) rather than recognition (such as with multiple-choice questions). Recalling information is harder than recognizing it. So if you can recall it, that means your retention of the material is better than if you could only recognize it. Your chances of test success are therefore greater.
retrieval cue:
any stimulus (event, feeling, place, and so on) linked to a specific memory.
priming:

-the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

-happens without your conscious awareness, it can influence your attitudes and your behavior.

mood-congruent memory:
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with your current good or bad mood.
serial position effect:
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
When we are tested immediately after viewing a list of words, we tend to recall the first and last items best. This is known as the _______ _______ effect.
serial position
reconsolidation

-active memory to stored memory

-can distort memory over time

-sometimes produces a false memory

prefrontal cortex

-a hub for working memory

Who developed the Stage Model of Memory?

Yadin Dudai
Robert Bjork and Eric Kandel
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
Brian Butterworth and Nelson Cowan

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin

In the Stage Model of Memory, how does information first enter the memory system?

working memory
sensory memory
long-term memory
short-term memory

sensory memory

John is taking a bus to school. He sits in the third row behind the driver and places his book bag under his feet. He then looks out the window as the bus travels its route. The bus stops and picks up additional passengers. A woman in a blue shirt with a baby sits in the seat next to John. When the bus arrives at school John takes his bag and exits the bus. Later that day he sees a woman in a blue shirt and thinks that she resembles the woman on the bus. Why did John remember the color of the woman’s shirt?

The woman was attractive.
John was distracted by the woman’s baby while on the bus.
John paid attention to the woman while on the bus.
The woman sat next to John.

John paid attention to the woman while on the bus.

Short-term memory is also called:

stage memory.
working memory.
long-term memory.
sensory memory.

working memory

Where does memory go in the second stage of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory?

long-term memory
stage memory
short-term memory
sensory memory

short-term memory

Maintenance rehearsal can be used to keep information in:

short-term memory.
sensory memory.
long-term memory.
stage memory.

short-term memory

Samantha is taking a psychology course and wants to do well. Every day she reviews her notes from class and reads the textbook. When it is time to take the first exam Samantha has no problem retrieving the information and earns an A on the exam. Samantha has stored the information in:

sensory memory.
working memory.
short-term memory.
long-term memory.

Long-term memory

Samantha is taking a psychology course and wants to do well. Every day she reviews her notes from class and reads the textbook. When it is time to take the first exam Samantha has no problem retrieving the information and earns an A on the exam. How did Samantha answer the questions on the test correctly?

She transferred information from her long-term memory to her sensory memory.

She transferred information from her working memory to her sensory memory.

She transferred information from her long-term memory to her short-term memory.

She transferred information from her short-term memory to her sensory memory.

She transferred information from her long-term memory to her short-term memory.

How much information can we hold in short-term memory?

7 +/- 2

8 +/- 2

10 +/- 2

3 +/- 2

7 +/- 2

Which of the following researchers determined the capacity of short-term memory?

Richard Shiffrin

George Miller

Richard Atkinson

Erik Erikson

George Miller

Juanita is preparing to go grocery shopping and is making a list. However, when she gets to the store she realizes that she has forgotten the list. Which of the following best describes the list of items Juanita is likely to remember?

eggs, milk, cheese

eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup, lettuce, pickles

eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup

eggs, milk, cheese, bread

eggs, milk, cheese, bread, ketchup, lettuce, pickles

Most people are able to remember between:

two and four items.

five and seven items.

three and five items.

five and nine items.

five and nine items.

How long is information in short-term memory likely to last?

7 seconds

35 seconds

10 seconds

20 seconds

20 seconds

Considering what is known about memory, most telephone numbers are seven digits long because:

seven digits is the capacity of long-term memory.

seven digits is the capacity of telephone companies.

seven digits is the capacity of short-term memory.

seven digits is the capacity of sensory storage.

seven digits is the capacity of short-term memory.

Suan just asked Monica for her phone number but did not write it down. What can he do to remember the information long enough to grab a pen and paper?

Recall that Monica is in his class.

Make sure he writes with a red pen.

Repeat the number over and over in his head.

Repeat Monica’s name in his head.

Repeat the number over and over in his head.

Researchers have found that short-term memory lasts about 20 seconds, unless the information is _____ in some way.

recalled

forgotten

attended to

rehearsed

rehearsed

What is the third stage of the Stage Model of Memory?

sensory memory

short-term memory

long-term memory

working memory

long-term memory

Which of the following best describes the Stage Model of Memory?

working memory; long-term memory; sensory memory

short-term memory; working memory; long-term memory

long-term memory; stage memory; sensory memory

sensory memory; short-term memory; long-term memory

sensory memory; short-term memory; long-term memory

Which of the following must be used to maintain information in short-term memory?

maintenance rehearsal

elaborate rehearsal

reiterate rehearsal

lingering rehearsal

maintenance rehearsal

One of the most popular models of how memory works is the:

Stage Model of Memory.

Rehearsal Model of Memory.

Practice Model of Memory.

Initial Model of Memory.

Stage Model of Memory

Our unconscious capacity for learning how to do something is known as _____ memory.

sensory
implicit
explicit
declarative

implicit
The _____ is the brain area involved in processing explicit memories for storage.
hippocampus

A multiple-choice test is a good example of a test of:

retrieval.
relearning.
recognition.
recall.

recognition

Which statement is TRUE regarding the order in which memory processes occur?

Retrieval follows storage.
Storage follows retrieval.
Encoding follows retrieval.
Storage precedes encoding.

Retrieval follows storage.

The hippocampus and brain cortex display simultaneous activity rhythms during sleep. This supports the process of:

amnesia.
memory consolidation.
distributed practice.
procedural memory.

memory consolidation.

Which measure of retention is the LEAST sensitive in triggering retrieval?

They are all equally sensitive.
recognition
recall
relearning

recall

Tameka is reading a novel. When the phone rings, she looks up to see if her husband is going to answer it, which he does. She returns her attention to the book, going back to the exact spot on the page where she left off. Tameka is able to effortlessly return to her reading because:

she is extremely bright.
women are better at remembering their place in a book than men.
of the automatic processing of space.
of the effortful processing of space.

of the automatic processing of space.

Mabel has Alzheimer’s disease and her _____ memories for people and events are lost, but she is able to display an ability to form new _____ memories by being repeatedly shown words.

explicit; detailed
implicit; explicit
explicit; implied
explicit; implicit

explicit; implicit
An essay test is a good example of a ______ test of explicit memory.
recall

You hear a familiar word in your native language and it is virtually impossible NOT to recognize the word’s meaning. This BEST illustrates the importance of:

flashbulb memories.
the spacing effect.
automatic processing.
iconic memory.

automatic processing

When you encode a piece of target information, other bits of information become associated with it. The bits of information connected with the target information are known as:

retrieval cues.
iconic memories.
flashbulb memories.
primacy cues.

retrival cues

While you probably wish that your study time was automatic, unfortunately, successful studying for introductory psychology requires attention and conscious effort known as:

implicit memory.
linguistic determinism.
effortful processing.
consciousness.

effortful processing.

Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard news of the Sandy Hook school shootings in Newtown, Connecticut in 2012. This BEST illustrates _____ memory.

flashbulb
echoic
implicit
iconic

flashbulb

Whenever Sunny gets blue, she immediately is flooded with thoughts of failed relationships and missed chances. Sunny’s experience BEST illustrates:

mood-congruent memory.
retroactive interference.
the misinformation effect.
repression.

mood-congruent memory.

Damage to the _____ would MOST likely interfere with learning a conditioned fear response to the sight of a dog that had bitten you on several occasions.

hippocampus
cerebellum
basal ganglia
hypothalamus

cerebellum

Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. But the longer he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the difference in:

recognition and recall.
proactive interference and retroactive interference.
explicit memory and implicit memory.
short-term memory and long-term memory.

explicit memory and implicit memory.

Professor Wallace studies memory in people who have had strokes. Professor Hansen studies people who claim to have clear memories of events that happened over three decades ago. Such research on the extremes of memory:

makes us realize that it is impossible to study memory.
helps us to understand how memory works.
explains how consciousness works.
is not useful to psychologists who study normal memory.

helps us to understand how memory works.

A group of 50-year-old adults is asked to think about their high school classmates. Although they have difficulty recalling their classmates, when presented with their yearbooks they can recognize about _____ percent of their pictures and names.

35
75
90
50

90

At a block party, Cyndi meets nine new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and last two neighbors she met. The fact that Cyndi can remember the first few people she met BEST reflects the _____ effect.

primacy
recency
serial position
flashbulb memory

serial position

The primacy and recency effects are both components of the _____ effect.

flashbulb memory
serial position
testing
mood-congruent memory

serial position
amnesia
literally “without memory”—a loss of memory, often due to brain trauma, injury, or disease.
memory trace:
lasting physical change in the brain as a memory forms.
proactive interference:
the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference:
the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old information.
repression:

-in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety.

-we repress painful or unacceptable memories to protect our self-concept and to minimize anxiety.

What are three ways we forget, and how does each of these happen?

(1) Encoding failure: Unattended information never entered our memory system.

(2) Storage decay: Information fades from our memory.

(3) Retrieval failure: We cannot access stored information accurately, sometimes due to interference or motivated forgetting.

You will experience less _______ (proactive/retroactive) interference if you learn new material in the hour before sleep than you will if you learn it before turning to another subject.
retroactive
Freud believed that we _______ unacceptable memories to minimize anxiety.
repress
reconsolidation:
a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again.
misinformation effect:
when a memory has been corrupted by misleading information.
source amnesia:
faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined.

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