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NR 222 Final Exam Chamberlain Flashcards

HealthState of physical, mental, spiritual, and social functioning within a developmental context. Involves adaptation and reaction to the environment.
Health PromotionConcept promoting healthy living, detailing individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, as well as behavior outcomes. Aims for a commitment to health promoting behaviors, adapting over an individual’s lifetime.
IllnessComposed of the subjective experience of the individual and the physical manifestation of disease.
DiseaseFailure of a person’s adaptive mechanisms, resulting in functional or structural disturbances.
Models of HealthIncludes Clinical model, Role performance model, Adaptive model, Eudaemonistic model.
Clinical ModelHealth is defined by the absence of signs and symptoms of disease, and illness by the presence of signs and symptoms.
Role Performance ModelHealth defined in terms of individuals’ ability to perform social roles, including work, family, and social roles, based on societal expectations.
Adaptive ModelHealth measured by the ability to positively adjust to social, mental, and physiological changes. Illness occurs with failure to adapt or maladaptation.
Eudaimonistic ModelOptimal health indicated by exuberant well-being, emphasizing the interaction between various aspects of life and the environment. Illness reflected by lack of involvement with life.
Health Beliefs – Internal VariablesDevelopmental stage, Intellectual background, Perception of functioning, Emotional factors, Spiritual factors.
Health Beliefs – External VariablesFamily practices, Socioeconomic factors, Cultural background.
Healthy People 2020Aims for high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, health equity, improved health for all groups, and promoting quality of life and healthy behaviors across all life stages.
Levels of PreventionPrimary (prevention before illness or injury), Secondary (preventing worsening of an existing condition), Tertiary (preventing lasting effects of the condition or reducing impact).
Risk FactorsVariables increasing vulnerability to illness or accident, including genetic/physiological factors, age, environment, lifestyle.
Nursing RolesAdvocate, Care manager, Consultant, Deliverer of services, Educator, Communicator, Researcher.
Benner’s Stages of Nursing ProficiencyNovice, Advanced beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert.
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)Use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
Models of Health: Transtheoretical ModelStages include Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsBasic human needs concept aiming for self-actualization, starting at the base of the pyramid.
Holistic Health ModelFocuses on achieving an optimal level of health, emphasizing the emotional and spiritual well-being of the individual.
World Health Organization (WHO)Aims to influence health opportunities and outcomes globally for the highest level of health.
American Nurses Association (ANA)Aims to improve health and well-being through significant nursing contributions using standards-based practice.
Important Nurses in HistoryClara Barton, Mother Bickerdyke, Harriet Tubman, Mary Mahoney, Lillian Wald, Mary Brewster.
Contemporary NursingFocuses on self-care, influenced by societal changes such as the ACA, health care costs, demographic changes, and medically underserved populations.
Professional Nursing OrganizationsAddress member concerns, present educational programs, publish journals, and include student organizations like the NSNA.
Financing HealthcareIncludes the ACA, Medicare/Medicaid, factors driving costs, and the nursing shortage.
Ethical ConsiderationsInclude issues, dilemmas, advocacy, informed consent, confidentiality (HIPAA), proxy decision making, and ethical principles such as autonomy, veracity, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, paternalism.
Nursing Process: ADPIEAssessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation.
Development and Learning TheoriesIncludes theories and concepts related to development (e.g., Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, Freud, Kohlberg, Gilligan), growth patterns, learning principles, assessment in nursing, teaching and learning roles, and cultural competence.

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