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The National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) require certain categories of researchers to receive RCR training. RCR is increasingly viewed as an essential component of training, regardless of a researcher’s source of funding.
RCR consists of a basic course, additional content that can be incorporated based on organizational and learner needs, and a refresher course, which reemphasizes and expands on key concepts. It is suitable for any person involved in research ranging from upper-level undergraduates to established faculty.
Particular emphasis is given to the educational needs of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. RCR can provide students or other researchers with a conceptual foundation that can enhance the quality of in-person training.
These courses were written and peer-reviewed by experts.
Language Availability: English, Korean
Suggested Audiences: Faculty, Postdoctoral Researchers, Principal Investigators, Staff, Students
Terms and answers to learn
According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, fabrication involves:
Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
Which of the following is most likely to be considered plagiarism?
Using materials from a source without proper citation.
Which of the following is the most effective strategy for preventing research misconduct?
Which of the following is true regarding the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy?
To have a misconduct finding, the action must have been committed intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly.
Which type of research misconduct most likely occurred if someone intentionally removes data points on a graph in order to generate a deceptive conclusion?
According to U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, which of the following is considered to be research misconduct?
In response to a research misconduct allegation, what is the next main phase that takes place after the inquiry if there is sufficient evidence to proceed?
According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, falsification involves:
Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data.
What is the primary responsibility of oversight bodies such as an IRB or an IACUC?
To detect compliance with regulatory requirements, including those relating to protecting research subjects.
What are the three main goals of data lifecycle management?
Confidentiality, availability, and integrity
In the research context, the term validity most commonly refers to:
Whether operationalized concepts actually measure what they purport to measure.
Which of the following statements is true concerning data selection?
Establishing a data selection strategy prior to collecting data decreases the chance of a biased outcome.
Which of following is most likely to own the data resulting from a research project?
The institution where a federally-funded project takes place.
Which of the following is true regarding data sharing and stewardship?
Agencies that fund research may include data sharing requirements in their funding contracts.
Which of the following most accurately describes the practice of ghost authorship?
It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author.
Which of the following is a responsibility of each author?
Confirming that data have been accurately presented.
Which of the following is an example of plagiarism?
Presenting someone else’s ideas or words and claiming them as one’s own.
Which of the following is true regarding an acknowledgments section?
The contributions of students and technicians are often listed in the acknowledgments section if they do not meet all of the criteria for authorship.
Which of the following is true regarding publishing the same content in multiple papers?
Using the same content in multiple papers is deceptive if it is not properly disclosed.
Which author is normally responsible for sharing reprints of a publication with readers?
The corresponding author.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines?
Individuals who do not meet the criteria for authorship but who have made a noteworthy contribution are normally listed in the acknowledgments section.
Which of the following is the primary criterion for authorship?
Having made a significant intellectual contribution to the work.
Which of the following statements is true regarding authorship practices?
Different disciplines have different practices about who should be included as an author.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the review process for grant proposals?
Funding agencies usually have committees, often with external reviewers, that assess the quality of the proposal.
A reviewer’s main responsibility is to:
Be professional and prompt.
The two main criteria that the National Science Foundation (NSF) uses to evaluate grant proposals are:
Intellectual merits and broader impacts.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the responsibilities of a reviewer?
A reviewer’s conflict of interest should be disclosed to the journal editor or grant agency
Which of the following is true regarding single-blind and double-blind review:
Under single-blind review, the identity of the author is revealed to the reviewer.
The main reason that grant proposal reviewers with a conflict of interest should remove themselves from the review process is because:
Their removal lessens the chance that bias will affect the review process.
Which of the following is most directly related to successful mentoring?
Someone who is committed to the professional development of the trainee.
What is the most appropriate course of action for a trainee who has a problem with a mentor?
After first attempting to communicate directly with the mentor, the trainee should seek the counsel of a trusted senior person in the department or organization.
Which of the following is to be avoided when seeking an effective mentor?
Trainees should assume that whoever is assigned to them as the thesis or research adviser will be their best choice for a mentor.
Which of the following most accurately describes the responsibilities of a trainee in the mentoring relationship?
The trainee must take an active role in the relationship and clearly communicate needs and expectations.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the mentoring relationship?
Mentors teach trainees about aspects of academic life that are not covered in textbooks.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the importance of mentoring?
A mechanism to transmit values and standards of professional conduct.
The defining characteristic of a mentor is someone who:
Takes a sincere interest in the growth and development of a trainee.
Which of the following is most likely to create a poor relationship between mentor and trainee?
A faculty member searches out trainees merely for that person’s own career advancement.
Which of following is true about the management of conflicts of interest?
Management plans are often created to reduce the impact of conflicts of interest rather than completely eliminating them.
If researchers allow their moral or other personal beliefs to influence their objectivity, this is most likely an example of:
A conflict of conscience
Which of the following most accurately describes a conflict of commitment?
It occurs when outside activities interfere with obligations to one’s primary employer.
The main focus of NIH’s conflict of interest policy is:
Financial conflicts of interest
The entity that normally is supposed to determine whether an academic researcher’s conflict of interest can be managed is:
A conflict of interest committee
Which of the following most clearly illustrates an example of an academic conflict of interest?
A researcher becomes overly attached to a specific research outcome.
Which of the following most accurately describes an institutional conflict of interest?
It occurs when an institution’s financial interests could interfere with its research activities.
Which of following is true about conflicts of interest?
They increase the likelihood of bias.
if an employer allows a friendship to interfere with a hiring decision, this is typically referred to as:
A personal conflict of interest.
Data ownership is typically determined by:
The type and source of funds used to support the project.
Which of the following is a key reason why international collaborations can be challenging?
Language barriers and cultural differences among collaborators can complicate communication.
Which of the following is true regarding academic-industry collaborations?
The industry sponsor typically owns the data from research that it funds.
What is the most appropriate process for determining which journal a collaborative research team should submit their work to?
It should be discussed early on in the collaboration by the members of the research team.
Which of the following is true regarding industry-sponsored research?
Industry sponsors of research may place restrictions on the disclosure of research results.
What is the main function of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 as it relates academic institutions?
It allows institutions to have control over the intellectual property from federally-funded research.
What is the main function of a Technology Transfer Office?
It helps researchers to commercialize their work.
A research collaboration can be enhanced by:
Discussing intellectual property issues while the collaboration is forming.
Which of the following is true regarding the use of animals in research?
The attending veterinarian must be allowed to have access to all research animals at all times.
Which of the following is the main reason why proper training in euthanasia techniques is important?
Improper techniques can cause unnecessary pain and distress in animals.
Which of the following is empowered by the U.S. federal government to review and approve research activities involving vertebrate animals?
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
Prior to implementing any significant change in the use of animals, what is the most important thing that the research team must do?
Obtain IACUC approval for the change.
Which of the following most accurately describes the process that must occur when working with research animals covered by U.S. federal regulations?
The research team must obtain IACUC approval for the proposed research procedures prior to starting the work.
Which entity is responsible for monitoring institutional compliance with PHS Policy?
The Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)
What is the primary purpose of the “3Rs” concept from Russell and Burch?
To decrease the use of animals in research and to minimize pain and distress caused by animal experiments.
Which of the following is the general guideline that IACUCs use to evaluate the potential pain of a procedure conducted with animals?
Any procedure that causes pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in other animals.
Which justification would an IACUC most likely accept if a research team plans to withhold pain relief (analgesia) from animals during a project?
Which statement best describes information that must be included in a consent form:
A description of the research’s potential benefits and risks.
Which of the following best describes when a protocol may be eligible for expedited review by the IRB:
The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified by the federal government.
Which of the following statements most clearly illustrates the principle of beneficence:
Determining whether the benefits of a study outweigh the risks.
Which statement best describes the role of an IRB:
a committee that reviews different types of human subjects research.
Which of the following studies most directly contributed to the establishment of the National Research Act and the creation of the Belmont Report:
The Tuskegee Study.
The three ethical principles discussed in the Belmont Report are:
Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice.
As a first step, what must be done before enrolling a young child in a research protocol:
the risks and benefits must be explained to the child’s parents or legally authorized representative.
Which statement most accurately describes the process leading to the development of the Nuremberg Code:
it was created in response to the harms caused by Nazi researchers around the time of the Second World War.
Which of the following protocols most likely requires IRB review:
A study to evaluate a newly designed wheelchair by asking elderly individuals to use it.
Which statement best describes what an IRB is responsible for reviewing:
Any form of research involving a human subject.
Who should consider taking RCR?
RCR is suitable for any person involved in research, ranging from upper-level undergraduates to established faculty. Particular emphasis is given to the educational needs of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers.
Which disciplines or fields does it cover?
It covers essential topic areas such as authorship, data management, and research misconduct that are relevant to researchers from any field or discipline. It also includes content more specifically tailored to a subset of research fields, including “Research Involving Human Subjects” and “Using Animal Subjects in Research.”
Does it satisfy the NSF or NIH RCR training mandate?
The RCR policy from the National Science Foundation (NSF) allows organizations to make an internal determination about the type of training, CITI Program or otherwise, that satisfy the RCR training requirement. The RCR policy from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) prohibits a training program that relies entirely on online instruction “except in special instances of short-term training.” The CITI Program RCR Basic course can be used to complement an in-person training experience.
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