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Human Subjects Research CITI Program Answers

HSR provides foundational training in human subjects research and includes the historical development of human subject protections, ethical issues, and current regulatory and guidance information.

About These Courses

Human Subjects Research (HSR) basic content is organized into two courses: Biomedical (Biomed) and Social-Behavioral-Educational (SBE). They are intended for anyone involved in research studies with human subjects, or who have responsibilities for setting policies and procedures with respect to such research, including Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Additional modules of interest within HSR allow for the exploration of several important topics and may be selected to meet organizational needs.

HSR includes additional standalone courses for institutional/signatory officials, IRB chairs, and public health researchers, as well as a revised Common Rule course that covers the regulatory updates to the Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A).

All HSR modules (except legacy versions) reflect the revised Common Rule (2018 Requirements). A selection of HSR modules are available as legacy versions (reflecting the pre-2018 requirements).

These courses were written and peer-reviewed by experts.

Language Availability: English, Korean

Suggested Audiences: Researchers, Research Team Members, Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), Institutional/Signatory Officials, IRB Chairs, IRB Administrators and Staff, Human Subject Protection Staff, Students.

Human Subjects Research Answers

Which of the following is an example of how the principle of beneficence is applied to a study involving human subjects?
Ensuring that risks are reasonable in relationship to anticipated benefits.
The researcher’s failure to protect research subjects from deductive disclosure is the primary ethical violation in which of the following studies?
Harvard “Tastes, Ties, and Time (T3)” study (2006-2009)” study
Which of the following studies is linked most directly to the establishment of the National Research Act in 1974 and ultimately to the Belmont Report and Federal regulations for human subject protection?
The Public Health Service Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.
The Belmont principle of beneficence requires that:
Potential benefits justify the risks of harm.
According to the Belmont Report, the moral requirement that there be fair outcomes in the selection of research subjects, expresses the principle of:
According to the federal regulations, human subjects are living human beings about whom an investigator obtains data through interaction or intervention with the individual or:
Identifiable private information.
According to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
A developmental psychologist videotapes interactions between groups of toddlers and their care givers to determine which intervention methods most effectively manage aggression.
Census data (the final report as published by the Census Bureau) is an example of:
Public information.
According to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
A study of twenty 4th grade classrooms in which researchers ask the schools to systematically vary the time of day reading is taught, and collect weekly assessments of reading comprehension for each child over a three-month period.
A medical record is an example of:
Private information.
A professor at Big State University is writing a biography about Bill Gates and conducting oral histories with all of Bill Gates’ friends, family members and business acquaintances. The researcher submits the research proposal to the institution’s IRB. What action can he expect by the IRB?
The IRB will not review this study because it is not research as defined by the federal regulations.
According to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
An experiment is proposed on the relationship between gender-related stereotypes in math and the subsequent performance by males and females on math tests.
According to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
A cognitive psychologist enrolls undergraduate students for a computer-based study about the effect of mood on problem solving behaviors.
A subject in a clinical research trial experiences a serious, unanticipated adverse drug experience. How should the investigator proceed, with respect to the IRB, after the discovery of the adverse event occurrence?
Report the adverse drug experience in a timely manner, in keeping with the IRB’s policies and procedures, using the forms or the mechanism provided by the IRB.
How long is an investigator required to keep consent documents, IRB correspondence, and research records?
For a minimum of three years after completion of the study
According to federal regulations, which of the following best describes when expedited review of a new, proposed study may be used by the IRB?
The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified in federal regulations
Amendments involving changes to IRB approved protocols do NOT need prior IRB approval if:
The changes must be immediately implemented for the health and well being of the subject.
IRB continuing review of an approved protocol must:
Occur at least annually.
A therapist at a free university clinic treats elementary school children with behavior problems who are referred by a social service agency. She is also a doctoral candidate who proposes using data she has and will collect about the children for a case-based research project. Which of the following statements about parental permission is correct?
The parents of the children might feel pressure to give permission to the therapist to use their children’s data so that she will continue to provide services to their children.
A general requirement for informed consent is that no informed consent may include any exculpatory language. Exculpatory language is that which waives or appears to waive any of the subject’s legal rights or releases or appears to release those conducting the research from liability for negligence. Which of the following statements in a consent form is an example of exculpatory language?
Taking part in the research is voluntary, but if you choose to take part, you waive the right to legal redress for any research-related injuries.
A criterion for waiving informed consent is that, when appropriate, subjects are provided additional pertinent information after the study. In which of the following studies would it NOT be appropriate to provide subjects with information about missing elements of consent:
A study in which subjects were assigned to study activities based on an undesirable or unflattering physical characteristic as assessed by members of the research team.
A waiver of the requirement for documentation of informed consent may be granted when:
The only record linking the subject and the research is the consent document and the principal risk is a breach of confidentiality.
As part of the consent process, the federal regulations require researchers to:
Provide potential subjects with information at the appropriate reading comprehension level.
Which of the following constitutes both a breach of confidentiality (the research data have been disclosed, counter to the agreement between researcher and subjects) and a violation of subjects’ privacy (the right of the individuals to be protected against intrusion into their personal lives or affairs)?
A faculty member makes identifiable data about sexual behavior available to graduate students, although the subjects were assured that the data would be de-identified.
Data are made anonymous by
Destroying all identifiers connected to the data.
When a focus group deals with a potentially sensitive topic, which of the following statements about providing confidentiality to focus group participants is correct?
The researcher cannot control what participants repeat about others outside the group.
In a longitudinal study that will follow children from kindergarten through high school and will collect information about illegal activities, which of the following confidentiality procedures would protect against compelled disclosure of individually identifiable information?
Securing a Certificate of Confidentiality.
A researcher leaves a research file in her car while she attends a concert and her car is stolen. The file contains charts of aggregated numerical data from a research study with human subjects, but no other documents. The consent form said that no identifying information would be retained, and the researcher adhered to that component. Which of the following statements best characterizes what occurred?
There was neither a violation of privacy nor a breach of confidentiality.

A researcher wants to conduct a secondary analysis using a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) database that was collected by the agency solely for surveillance purposes from 1996-2006. The researcher did not participate in the initial collection of the data. The database is publicly available. The database does not include any identifiers. The IRB makes a determination that the individuals whose records will be reviewed do not meet the federal definition of human subjects.

Which of the following considerations was relevant to the IRB’s determination that this activity does not constitute research with human subjects?

The researcher will not be interacting/intervening with subjects and the data has no identifiers.
As part of a research study, a physician plans to review medical records of the next 50 of her patients who require magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for clinical treatment to explore factors related to patients requiring MRI scans. The physician will review the medical records, and write down the clinical indication for the scans, any existing injuries, current prescriptions, as well as other clinical data. The clinical indication for the scans and the other clinical data will be collected in the medical records for treatment purposes as part of standard clinical care. The physician will use a coding system to be able to identify the patient’s information; however, the “key” to the coding system will be stored separately from the data in a locked cabinet that only she will have access to. Which of the following is true?
The study is human subject research which is eligible for expedited review.
An investigator obtains consent from subjects to review their medical records and HIV status. He plans to go back to the medical record, so the HIV status information is stored along with patient identifiers in a database that he keeps on his laptop computer. His laptop is stolen. This incident constitutes:
A breach of confidentiality.
NBAC proposed a concept of vulnerability in research based on features of potential subjects or of their situation. Which of the following was NOT included as possibly leading to vulnerability?
High potential for individual benefit from participating in research
n considering NBAC’s analytic approach, an otherwise competent person who is acutely ill might be considered at especially high risk of harm for:
Situational cognitive vulnerability
According to the authors, there are four common abuses that historically are described as giving rise to vulnerability . Which response below contains the correct four?
Physical control, coercion, undue influence, and manipulation
Identify the following groups that are protected in the federal regulations (45 CFR 46), specifically in Subparts B, C and D with additional protections:
Pregnant women, prisoners, children
Which is true of inducements in research?
Inducements constitute an “undue influence” if they alter a potential subject’s decision-making processes, such that they do not appropriately weigh the risk-benefit relationship of the research.

Who should take human subjects research training?

Basic HSR courses are suitable for all persons involved in research studies involving human subjects (for example, researchers and staff), or who have responsibilities for setting policies and procedures with respect to such research, including Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and other members of organizational communities where research with human subjects occurs.

There are additional standalone courses that are intended for institutional/signatory officials, IRB chairs, public health researchers, and Certified IRB Professionals (CIPs) seeking recertification credits. Additional standalone courses on IRB Administration and the Revised Common Rule are available. The Revised Common Rule course covers the regulatory updates to the Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A). Legacy versions of select basic and refresher modules are available for learners who need training on the pre-2018 requirements of the Common Rule.

What different courses are offered in HSR?

HSR consists of content organized in two basic tracks: Biomedical (Biomed) and Social-Behavioral-Educational (SBE). Additional modules of interest within HSR allow for exploration of several important topics and may be selected to meet organizational needs. Organizations may group these modules to form a basic Biomed or SBE course, or a course that combines the two tracks. Additional courses for institutional/signatory officials, IRB chairs, public health researchers, and Certified IRB Professionals (CIPs) seeking recertification credits are also available. HSR also includes a standalone Revised Common Rule course covering the regulatory updates to the Common Rule (2018 Requirements).

The basic Biomed modules have three corresponding sets of refresher modules and the basic SBE modules have two corresponding sets of refresher modules. These refresher modules are intended to provide learners with a review of what was covered in the basic level modules. It is generally recommended that organizations select refresher module requirements that reflect their selections for the basic course(s). Refresher courses should be taken in a cycle specified by your organization (for example, Refresher Stage 1: 3 years after completion; Refresher Stage 2: 6 years after completion).

The CIP courses should be taken by independent learners who are seeking CIP continuing education (CE) credits for recertification.

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