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AP World History Unit 6 Test Answers

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AP World History is a course that covers the history of the world from approximately 8000 BCE to the present day. AP World History Unit 6 Consequences of Industrialization focuses on the time period of c. 1750-1900.

The main ideas of the unit include the economic advantages gained by European countries through industrialization, which led to the colonization of other lands to obtain raw materials to support their economies. This period also saw the rise of European imperialism and the Westernization of their colonies, contributing to the global migration of millions of people.

Some other key topics and themes covered in Unit 6 of AP World History may include:

  • The impact of industrialization on social and economic structures, including the rise of the middle class and new forms of labor and production
  • The emergence of new forms of nationalism and the role of the state in economic development
  • The spread of ideas and ideologies, including liberalism, communism, and socialism
  • The role of imperialism in shaping global economic and political relations, including the exploitation of resources and labor in colonized lands
  • The impact of industrialization on the environment and the rise of environmentalism
  • The relationship between industrialized and non-industrialized nations, including trade patterns and economic dependency.
QuestionAnswer
ImperialismA policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
NationalismA strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Also, when the Nation should control the State.
Social DarwinismThe application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Berlin ConferenceA meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.
King Leopold IIKing of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the infamous ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).
The Great GameUsed to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire before WWI.
Scramble for AfricaSudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
Penal colonyA colony to which convicts are sent as an alternative to prison.
Taiping Rebellion(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Qing government because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
Corvee laborUnpaid forced labor usually by lower classes, forced upon them by the government.
Boer WarLasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch-speaking Afrikaners, the descendants of 17th-century Dutch settlers, and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
Tupac Amaru IIMember of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
Mohandas (Mahatma) GandhiPolitical leader and spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain after WWI; he stressed non-violent but aggressive protesting and civil disobedience.
Benito JuarezMexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico.
Samory Toure’s WarArmed resistance waged against the French between 1883-1891, it was led by the ruler of the newly created kingdom of Guinea when the French tried to annex West Africa.
MaoriNew Zealand indigenous culture established around 800 CE.
Settler colonySettler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers. As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or supported by an imperial authority.
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-1858Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called the Indian Rebellion or the Indian Mutiny from the fact that the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops under British employ.
Ghost DanceA ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.
Pan-AfricanismThe unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries.
De Beers Mining CompanyOwned by British Cecil Rhodes, this company controlled up to 90% of the world’s diamond production.
Export EconomiesThe demand for raw materials that could be processed and turned into manufactured goods turned colonies into these. Their economy is made up of mostly international trade.
ApartheidLaws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Treaty of NankingTreaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
Economic imperialismA situation in which foreign business interests have great economic power or influence.
Banana RepublicsSmall Central American countries under the economic power of foreign-based corporations. Politically unstable states with an economy dependent upon the exportation of a limited-resource product.
Sphere of InfluenceA foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Indentured ServantsPeople who worked for a set number of years before becoming free. Used as a way to pay for their transportation to a place with more opportunity or a way to pay off debt.
Contract LaborersLaborers who were forced or tricked into servitude. They were unskilled workers who were exploited as substitutes for slave labor.
DiasporaMass emigrations from a country or region that may take place over a period of many years.
Chinese Immigration Act1855 Limited the number of Chinese who could come ashore from the ship in Australia.
Chinese Exclusion Act1882 law that barred Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
White Australia PolicyA policy that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia.
Ethnic EnclavesClusters or neighborhoods of people from the same foreign country.
SepoysIndian troops who served in the British army
Sepoy Rebellion (1857)Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called the Indian Mutiny or the Sepoy Mutiny from the fact that the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops in British employ. Led to British government taking control of India from BEIC
RajBritish rule after India came under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria
Indian National CongressA movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government.
Philippine Revolution1899-1902: Rebels in Philippines fought US troops for 3 years trying to achieve independence. US gives them independence after WWII in 1946.
Spanish-American WarIn 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
Treaty of Paris(1898) treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Provided that Cuba be free from Spain.
Philippine-American WarArmed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899-1902. It was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence. The Philippines declared war on the US and it became a savage conflict with guerrilla warfare.
Sokoto CaliphateLarge Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria.
Xhosa Cattle Killing MovementPivotal movement that broke the back of the Xhosa and ushered in a new era of colonial expansion and domination of South Africa by the British. The prophecy was that killing all cattle would bring back ancient chiefs and ancestors.
Zulu KingdomA monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.
Anglo-Zulu WarWar between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region.
Tupac Amaru IIMember of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
Jose RizalFilipino revolutionary leader who fought for sovereignty from the Spanish
Samory ToureLed a group of warriors to establish a powerful kingdom in Guinea. He opposed French attempts to annex West Africa.
XhosaA Bantu ethnic group from Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa
GuanoBat and seabird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century
RubberA tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of a tropical plant or synthetically. They are native to the Amazon Rainforest and Central Africa. Used to produce tires, hoses, shoe sole, etc.
Palm OilUsed in machinery in Europe’s factories as lubrication and for candle making. Originated in West Africa.
DiamondsHighly valued precious stones found in South Africa among other places.
Cecil RhodesBritish entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. Joined the diamond rush in Kimberly and formed the De Beers Mining Company. His racist policies in the Cape Colony paved the way for apartheid.
De Beers Mining CompanyOwned by British Cecil Rhodes, this company controlled up to 90% of the world’s diamond production.
Export EconomiesAn economy made up of mostly international trade. The demand for raw materials that could be processed and turned into manufactured goods turned colonies into these.
MonoculturesLack of agricultural diversity.
ApartheidLaws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Spice IslandsPresent day Indonesia.
Treaty of NankingTreaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
Opium War1839-1842. Chinese attempted to prohibit the opium trade, British declared war and won against Chinese.
Economic imperialismA situation in which foreign business interests have great economic power or influence.
Banana RepublicsSmall Central American countries under the economic power of foreign-based corporations. Politically unstable states with an economy dependent upon the exportation of a limited-resource product.
Indentured ServantsPeople who worked for a set number of years before becoming free. Used as a way to pay for their transportation to a place with more opportunity or a way to pay off debt.
Contract LaborersLaborers who were forced or tricked into servitude. They were unskilled workers who were exploited as substitutes for slave labor.
DiasporaMass emigrations from a country or region that may take place over a period of many years.
EmigrateTo leave one’s home country or area to live in another.
Great FamineThe result of four years of potato crop failure in the late 1840s in Ireland, a country that had grown dependent on potatoes as a dietary staple. As many as 3 million people emigrated from Ireland.
Mohandas GandhiA philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India’s independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Chinese Immigration Act1855 Limited the number of Chinese who could come ashore from the ship in Australia.
Chinese Exclusion Act1882 law that barred Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
White Australia PolicyA policy that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia.
Gold RushA period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold. Chinese immigrants first came to America during the height of this.
White CollarA description characterizing lower-level professional and management workers and some highly skilled laborers in technical jobs.
Blue-CollarMember of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage.
Ethnic EnclavesClusters or neighborhoods of people from the same foreign country.
Kangani SystemReplaced indentured servitude. Entire families were recruited to work. Their lives were less restricted than indentured servants.

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