Chapter 11 A&P Answers

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Which of the following is NOT one of the basic functions of the nervous system?
Release hormones into the bloodstream to communicate with other cells in the body.
The term central nervous system refers to the ________.
brain and spinal cord
Collections of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system are called ________.
ganglia
Cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system.
true
As you start working out, you notice that your heart rate and breathing rate start to increase. Which division of your nervous system is generating this response? Be as specific as possible.
the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
What division of the nervous system is most specifically responsible for voluntary motor control?
somatic nervous system
Nerve impulses leading to the skeletal muscle carry information to direct movement. The nerve fibers sending these signals will most likely belong to which division of the nervous system?
somatic nervous system
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
innervation of skeletal muscle
Which of the choices below describes the ANS?
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Neurons in the CNS are organized into functional groups.
true
Which glial cells have the most diversity of function?
astrocytes
The concentration of ions in the chemical environment surrounding the neurons must be tightly regulated for neurons to function properly. Which of the following cells is most responsible for this?
astrocytes
The concentration neurotransmitters in the fluid of the synaptic cleft must be tightly regulated for neurons to function properly. Which of the following cells is most responsible for aiding in this regulation?
astrocytes
Bacteria in the blood can be prevented entry to the fluids surrounding the brain. Which cells are most responsible for preventing bacteria from entering the fluids of the brain?
astrocytes
Which of the following is not a function of astrocytes?
provide the defense for the CNS
Which of the following types of glial cells monitors the health of neurons, and can transform into a special type of macrophage to protect endangered neurons?
microglia
Meningitis can be caused by infection of the central nervous system by bacteria. Which cells would be most responsible for removing the infection?
microglia
These cells in the CNS have cilia that move in order to circulate cerebrospinal fluid ________.
ependymal cells
Which of the following peripheral nervous system (PNS) neuroglia form the myelin sheaths around larger nerve fibers in the PNS?
Schwann cells
Ependymal cells line many open cavities in the central nervous system (CNS). Ependymal cells have cilia on the side of the cell that face these openings. What is the most likely function of these ciliated cells?
movement and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
Which of the following is not characteristic of neurons?
They are mitotic.
Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________.
oligodendrocytes
How do neurofibrils differ from nerve fibers?
Neurofibrils are cytoskeletal intermediate filaments maintaining cell shape, but they do not conduct impulses.
Which is the main receptive portion of the neuron?
the dendrite
Many neurons have many short, branching extensions called dendrites. What is the benefit of these structures for a neuron?
The dendrites provide a large surface area for connections from other neurons.
Bundles of neurons in the central nervous system are called tracts.
true
Which of the following is true of axons?
A neuron can have only one axon, but the axon may have occasional branches along its length.
Cold sores on the skin of the mouth occur when herpes simplex viruses that are dormant in neural ganglia become active and travel to the skin of the mouth. Which of the following is the mechanism by which these viruses travel from the ganglia (located within the head) to the skin of the mouth?
anterograde axonal transport
Which criterion is used to functionally classify neurons?
the direction in which the nerve impulse travels relative to the central nervous system

Which of the following is NOT one of the basic functions of the nervous system?

*control the activity of muscles and glands
*integration of sensory input
*regulation of neurogenesis
*monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body

regulation of neurogenesis
Which of the following allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles?
the somatic nervous system
Which of the following types of glial cells monitors the health of neurons, and can transform into a special type of macrophage to protect endangered neurons?
microglia
Which of the following types of glial cells produces the myelin sheaths that insulate axons, or nerve fibers, in the central nervous system (CNS)?
oligodendrocytes
Which of the following peripheral nervous system (PNS) neuroglia form the myelin sheaths around larger nerve fibers in the PNS?
Schwann cells
Which of the following are bundles of neurofilaments that are important in maintaining the shape and integrity of neurons?
neurofibrils
Which of the following is true of axons?
A neuron can have only one axon, but the axon may have occasional branches along its length.
Which of the following is the conducting region of the neuron?
axon
Which of the following are gaps found along a myelin sheath?
nodes of ranvier
Which criterion is used to functionally classify neurons?
the direction in which the nerve impulse travels relative to the central nervous system
Which of the following is NOT a functional classification of neurons?
multipolar
Which of the following is NOT true of association neurons?
Most association neurons are confined within the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Which of the following is NOT a difference between graded potentials and action potentials?
Spatial summation is used to increase the amplitude of a graded potential; temporal summation is used to increase the amplitude of an action potential.
Which of the following is a factor that determines the rate of impulse propagation, or conduction velocity, along an axon?
degree of myelination of the axon
Which of the following is NOT true of an electrical synapse?
They are specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters.
Which of the following is NOT one of the chemical classes into which neurotransmitters fall?
chlorides
Which of the following is NOT a type of circuit?
pre-discharge circuits
Which of the following circuit types is involved in the control of rhythmic activities such as the sleep-wake cycle, breathing, and certain motor activities (such as arm swinging when walking)?
reverberating circuits
Which pattern of neural processing works in a predictable, all-or-nothing manner, where reflexes are rapid and automatic responses to stimuli in which a particular stimulus always causes the same response?
serial processing
Unmyelinated fibers conduct impulses faster than myelinated fibers. True or False
False

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