Which Of The Following Is An Outcome Of Interspecific Competition?

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“Which of the following is an outcome of interspecific competition? Both species coexist at population densities greater than would be present if they existed in the same environment without the order? Only one species survives; the other goes extinct. Both species grow at greater rates than would occur if they were present in the same environment without the other. All of the above.”

Answer: Only one species survives, the other goes extinct.

Explanation

Interspecific competition is a form of competition in which different animal species compete for the same food/territory in the ecosystem.

The result of this competition will be that one of the species will die out and the other species survives because they require the same food/territory to survive but both can’t win.

Interspecific competition can have a significant impact on both individuals and communities, with consequences that extend beyond one species. As adaptations are made to avoid competition, these changes may lead to the evolution of species. This development might result in the displacement of a species from its environment, as well as niche separation and local extinction.

 

Competition
individuals seek common resources in short supply
Interspecific Competition
relationship that adversely affects populations of two or more species
Interspecific competition takes two forms:
Exploitation
Interference
6 types of Interspecific Competitive Interactions:
consumption
preemption
overgrowth
chemical interaction
territorial
encounter
Consumption Competition
individuals of one species inhibit individuals of another by consuming a mutually desired resources
-competition for limited resources
Preemption Competition
Occupation by one individual prevents establishment of other individuals
-sessile organisms
-competition for space
Overgrowth Competition
one individual grows over another individual
with or without physical contact
Chemical Interaction
one species releases chemicals that inhibit or kill other species
Allelopathy in plants
Territorial Competition
Exclusion of others from a spatial area that is defended as a territory
Encounter Competition
non-territorial encounters that result in negative interactions
Exploitation vs. Interference
Exploitation:
consumption
preemption
overgrowthInterference:
overgrowth
chemical
territorial
encounter
Lotka-Volterra Equations
based on equation for logistic population growth ( growth model that includes carry capacity)
4 Possible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition:
1. species 1 inhibits species 2, and species 2 becomes extinct
2. species 2 inhibits species 1, and species 1 becomes extinct
3. Individuals of both species inhibit the other species more than their own specie when they are most abundant, most abundant one wins
4. Individuals inhibit their own species more than the other, they coexist
Competitive Exclusion Principle
states that “complete competitors” cannot coexist
Complete Competitors
two species that live in same place and have exactly the same ecological requirements (occupy the same niche)
Competitive interactions can….
restrict species access to conditions that yield highest growth rate, reproduction, or fitness
Competitive Release
when species expands its niche in response to removal of competitor, or when species invades and expands into unoccupied habitats
Resource partitioning
different kinds/sizes of food
feed at different times
forage in different areas
exploit portion of resources unavailable to others

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