Odysseyware Answers – Free Answer Keys

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Odysseyware Biology Answers

Match the term with the correct definition

TermDefinition
DNAa giant molecule consisting of the sugar deoxyribose, phosphates, and nitrogen bases; contains the coded genetic information
Cellthe basic unit of life
Homeostasisthe maintenance of a constant internal body environment by an organism’s body
MetabolismAll of the chemical reactions in the organism for maintenance of the processes of life
Organellea small structure within the cell that serves specialized functions
Ecologythe study of living things’ dependence on each other and their environment; the relationship of an organism with its total environment
Phenotypic curethe alteration of the phenotypic expression of a genetic defect
EvolutionLiving things adapt to their environment in order to survive as a species. Natural Selection is the driving force behind evolution and allows for favorable traits to be passed down to the offspring.
Ecologyis the study of organisms and how they interact with other organisms and the environment. This study focuses on the interdependence between biotic factors, which are living things, and abiotic factors, which are non-living things.
Hypothesisan educated guess or rational explanation about a specific phenomenon
Can you define life?1. made of cells.
2. must have DNA
3. must be able to reproduce
4. grow and develop
5. use and obtain energy
6. respond to their environment
7. must maintain homeostasis
8. change over time
Lawa universal and absolute fact or truth about a specific action or phenomenon
Photosynthesisa process in green plants that involves the use of carbon dioxide and water in the production of glucose and oxygen using the Sun’s energy
ScienceBody of factual knowledge that exists around the world, and the method of study used to arrive at that knowledge
Scientific methoda recognized means of inquiry to provide scientific answers to questions
Theoryan explanation for a natural phenomenon that appears to be supported by evidence gathered over a period of time
Eye wash stationthis si used when a chemical splash of gas fumes has reached the eyes
Fire blanketblanket is used to smother fires
Fire extinguisherused to put out small fires
First aid kitkit used for any small cuts or injuries that occur in the lab
Lab showerthe shower is used when a chemical spill has occurred on clothes of in case of a fire
Ventilation hooda work station that shields the user form any toxic or dangerous fumes and vents the substance away.
Classa taxonomic category containing a group of similar orders; between order and division in plant classification; between order and phylum in animal classification
Classificationa system of distinguishing groups for purposes of identification; a means or device for sorting into groups with similar characteristics
Divisionin plant classification, a grouping of similar classes; between kingdom and class in taxa
Domainthe largest taxonomic category
Familya taxonomic category containing a group of similar genera; between the taxa of order and genus
Genusa taxonomic category containing a group of similar species; between the taxa of family and species; the first name of the scientific name; (plural, genera)
Kingdoma taxonomic category containing a group of similar phylums; between the taxa of domain and phylum
Ordera taxonomic category containing a group of similar families; between the taxa of class and family
Phyluma grouping of similar classes; a taxonomic category between kingdom and class; (plural, phyla)
Speciesthe smallest taxonomic category, containing only similar varieties of an organism; the second word of the scientific name
Taxonthe categories used in classifying organisms (i.e., class, order); (plural, taxa)
Taxonomista scientist who classifies organisms
Taxonomythe science of the classification of organisms
Archaeaalso known as archaebacteria; prokaryotic organisms with different structures than bacteria; believed to be the most primitive organisms, capable of inhabiting extreme environments
Binomial nomenclaturethe two-name system of naming living things used in classification
Eubacteriaprokaryotic organisms including bacteria and cyanobacteria
Eukaryotea cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and/or organelles as its major characteristic
Morphologythe form or appearance of an organism; the collection of physical characteristics and the structure which make up an organism; a basis for species definition
Prokaryotea cell whose nucleus is not bound by a membrane
Reproductive isolationthe separation of populations of organisms by some type of barrier to produce variations of species; no reproduction or exchange of genes occurs between the separated groups; a basis for species definition

Odysseyware Civics Answers

 
unit 1 pre-test questions
 
 
If a political party puts the party agenda above the needs of the people it is known as ________.
partisan politics
 
The Democratic Party ________.
a. at one point had two presidential candidates in the General Elections, but lost to Abraham Lincoln b. had the only presidential candidate that was elected for three consecutive terms c. held control of the Senate for over 30 years
 
The ______ believed in a loose construction of the Constitution.
Federalists
 
The Democratic split was so severe during the 1860 elections that ________.
They ran two candidates for the presidency.
 
Select the Democratic Presidents.
Kennedy, Johnson, FDR, Buchanan
 
Select the Republican Presidents.
Eisenhower, Reagan, Taft, Hoover, Grant, Hayes
 
During the first three presidential elections the President and the Vice President were chosen by ________.
electoral college
 
Which of the following are major political parties in Great Britain?
Conservative + Labour
 
The headquarters for both major American political parties are located in ________.
Washington, D.C.
 
In 1992, Ross Perot formed the ________.
United We Stand Party
 
How do local party organizations differ from national committees?
Only the national committee raises money.
 
How can you become a member of a political party?
Registering to vote with the party you wish to join.
 
What do both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party NOT officially have?
Political bosses.
 
Why are political parties important?
a. A country is not subject to the whims of one person who maintains absolute power. b. Stances on issues remain somewhat flexible and allows a country to change its mind about the direction it wants to go as they go through the voting process.
 
Andrew Jackson
Started the Democratic Party
 
Republican Party
Began as a series of anti-slavery political meetings held in the Midwest in 1854.
 
strict construction
Limits the government to the powers which the Constitution delegated to it.
 
loose construction
Free interpretation of the Constitution, allowing the government all powers not denied it.
 
Abraham Lincoln
Republican President during the Civil War.
 
Constitutional Convention
Gathering for the purpose of creating a Constitution which laid down the laws for running the U.S.
 
The ________ won fourteen of the eighteen presidential elections held between 1860 through 1928.
Republicans
 
The ________ won the Presidency in the 90s but lost control of the Congress.
Democrats
 
Which of the following are the function of political parties?
Selecting the candidate.
 
Which of the following might a political party do only at the local level?
Inform voters of the need to improve local water facilities.
 
Step One of the decision making process
A state legislature is considering passing a bill that would limit funding for senior centers.
 
Step Two of the decision making process
A state representative interviews seniors in the representative’s district to see how this decision might impact them.
 
Step Three of the decision making process
Applying for federal funding is time-consuming and requires more regulations to be put in place.
 
Step Four of the decision making process
The state legislature can limit funding for senior centers, apply for federal funding to cover the cost of funding senior centers, or raise taxes.
 
Who was praised for his efforts in the Persian Gulf War, but was criticized for his poor efforts in strengthening America’s economy?
George Bush
 
Which committee sends political leaders to certain states to campaign for their party’s candidate?
National
 
The “Era of Good Feelings” was ______.
A time when America had only one party, the Democratic-Republicans.
 
In the early days of America’s democracy, voting was done ________.
Orally
 
Which of the following are distinctive features of the Australian ballot?
a. names of all candidates appear on a single ballot b. it is prepared by the state or county at public expense c. it is distributed at polling places by election officials
 
Which of the following are true?
a. There are generally between three to five election officers at each polling place. b. A primary is an early election in which delegates select and nominate candidates for office. c. George H. Bush was once Vice President under Ronald Reagan.
 
Office-bloc arrangement
Titles of offices appear across the ballot; the candidates of parties for each office are below the titles.
 
A criticism of elections
National, state, and local elections come on the same day.
 
Short ballot
Used to elect the President, Vice-President, and members of Congress.
 
Which of the following are types of public buildings used for polling places?
Schools, court houses, fire stations.
 
Election officers
Chosen by the election board
 
Inspectors and Judges
Responsible for the proper conduct of the election.
 
Absentee ballots are offered to _______.
a. Voters who will be out of town on election day b. Anyone who asks for them c. A country election volunteer
 
In absentee voting, a person marks the ballot and then swears for it before a _______.
Notary public
 
The Australian ballot is another name for a _______.
Secret Ballot
 
On a(n) ________ ballot, only the names of the candidates for the highest office appears on the ballot.
Short
 
Many argue it would be beneficial to have few elections because _______.
Fewer elections would bring a higher voter turnout.
 
What is the second step in the decision-making process?
Identifying options
 
Which state was apart of the Baker v. Carr case?
Tennessee
 
Of the following states, which one most likely has the lowest number of congressional districts?
Wyoming
 
unit 2 pre-test questions
 
 
What is this statement an example of? “In the interest of all America and even the world, I will lower all taxes, increase jobs, and make the quality of life two times better than it has ever been in this state.”
Glittering generalities
 
Public opinion can never be any sounder than when it is based on _____.
Facts
 
Gallup Poll® and the Harris Poll® are two organizations that _______.
have developed techniques for extracting important data on American opinions
 
Bias is a part of media because ___________.
newspaper publishers have very definite political, social, and economic beliefs
 
How does television media change our perspective on a topic?
A moving image can have a galvanizing effect and can motivate in ways print cannot.

Chemistry Answers

 
An ion is an atom with a net electrical charge due to ______.
either of the above
 
In the example in the lesson, 0.10 mole of sodium chloride or magnesium chloride or aluminum chloride was added to one liter of water. How many moles of each chloride are in one milliliter of the respective solutions?Hint: There are 0.10 moles per liter. Recall how many milliliters are in a liter and divide 0.10 by that number. (Remember to use the proper number of significant figures.)
0.00010 moles/mL
 
Assume that you measured exactly 2.0 mL of the sodium chloride solution into a small test tube. How many moles of sodium chloride are in the tube?
0.00020 moles
 
Now assume you measure out exactly 2.0 mL of aluminum chloride into a third test tube. How many moles of aluminum chloride are in the tube?
0.00020 moles
 
Balance the following equation: ___ MgCl2 + ___ AgNO3 –> ___ AgCl + ___ Mg(NO3)2
– blank – 2 – 2 – blank
 
Balance the following equation: ___ AlCl3 + ___ AgNO3 –> ___ AgCl + ___ Al(NO3)3
– blank – 3 – 3 – blank
 
How would Mg change to gain a noble gas structure?
lose 2 electrons
 
How would B change to gain stability?
lose 3 electrons
 
How could Cl change to gain stability?
gain 1 electron
 
How many valence electrons does fluorine have?
7
 
How many valence electrons does calcium have?
2
 
What would barium do to obtain a noble gas structure?
lose 2 electrons
 
What is the oxidation number for Ba?
+ 2
 
What is the oxidation number for Cl?
– 1

Odysseyware Earth Science Answers

 
aftershocks
smaller earthquakes that occur after a major earthquake
 
body waves
waves that travel through the interior of Earth; there are two types: primary and secondary waves
 
convection
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material
 
elastic rebound
immediate return of deformed rock to its natural shape
 
epicenter
location on the earth’s surface directly over the focus of an earthquake
 
focus
specific point in the earth where the rock layers along a fault move, producing an earthquake
 
liquefaction
wet soil behaves like a liquid and is no longer able to support buildings during an earthquake
 
surface
waves that travel on the surface of the earth; there is one type of surface wave: Love waves
 
foreshock
mini-quakes that usually occur before a major earthquake
 
magnitude
measure of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake
 
Mercalli Intensity Scale
scale that measures the effects or severity of an earthquake
 
moment magnitude scale
newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake
 
Richter Scale
scale of magnitude based on the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake
 
seismic gaps
areas on active faults where a major earthquake hasn’t occurred in a long time
 
seismogram
a record of the time and intensity of the energy waves produced by an earthquake
 
seismograph
instrument used to record and measure vibrations from earthquakes or earth tremors
 
seismology
scientific study of earthquakes
 
triangulation
process used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake
 
anticline
arch-shaped, upward fold in rock
 
footwall
block of rock below the slant of a fault
 
graben
a lower block of rock between two normal faults
 
hanging wall
block of rock above the slant of a fault
 
horst
an uplifted block of rock between two normal faults
 
monocline
a ramp-like fold between flat rock layers at different elevations
 
normal fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall
 
reverse fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall
 
scarp
cliff-like landform created by a normal fault
 
strike-slip fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions
 
syncline
U-shaped, downward fold in rock
 
andesitic magma
magma that is a mix of basaltic and rhyolitic; eruption may or may not be explosive
 
basaltic magma
magma that has low viscosity and low silica and gas content; eruption is non-explosive
 
cinder cone volcano
volcano formed of volcanic rock and ash; erodes quickly
 
composite volcano
volcano that is tall and steep; formed of lava and volcanic debris
 
Hawaiian eruption
non-explosive or very mild volcanic eruption
 
hot spot
an active area of volcanoes due to a consistent source of magma in the asthenosphere
 
plinian eruption
the most powerful, explosive type of volcanic eruption
 
pyroclastic flow
volcanic flow that contains a high concentration of gases, ash, and small rocks
 
rhyolitic magma
magma that has a high viscosity and high silica and gas content; eruption tends to be very explosive
 
shield volcano
volcano that has tall, broad slopes; formed by repeated, gradual lava flows
 
strombolian eruption
an intermittent explosive volcanic eruption
 
viscosity
ability of a substance to resist flowing
 
lahar
an avalanche of water, mud, and other materials that a volcanic eruption can produce
 
geothermal energy
energy produced from the heat of magma and other volcanic materials
 
tephra
volcanic rock and debris that is blasted from a volcano during an eruption
 
correlation spectrometer
instrument used to measure volcanic gases
 
plume
gassy smoke released by a volcano
 
tiltmeter
instrument used to measure ground swelling
 
batholith
a large mass of hardened igneous rock beneath all layers of sedimentary rock
 
dike
vertical intrusion of magma between rock layers
 
extrusive
igneous rock that forms on Earth’s surface
 
guyot
a volcanic island under sea that has been cut off by wave erosion
 
intrusive
igneous rock that forms in Earth’s interior
 
laccolith
intrusive rock that pushes its way between sedimentary strata in the shape of a dome
 
seamount
an underwater volcano
 
sill
horizontal intrusion of magma between rock layers
 
volcanic neck
tall feature that forms when the sides of a volcano erode, leaving the rock that filled the central vent of the volcano
 
cartographer
someone who creates maps
 
compass
provides direction of north, east, south, and west
 
contact line
light, thin line that separates rock units or types on a geologic map
 
fold axis
semi-dark line that indicates the ridge of a fold on a geologic map
 
geologic map
shows locations and types of rocks and other features, like faults and folds
 
legend
provides an explanation of lines and symbols given on a map
 
scale
the ratio of distance represented on a map to distance on Earth
 
contour interval
the distance between contour lines of elevation
 
contour lines
lines of equal elevation that display height, shape, and steepness of ground features
 
hachure marks
teeth-like marks on contour lines that indicate a depression or sunken area
 
topographic map
also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines
 
gem
precious, rare, or valuable mineral
 
homogenous
having a uniform structure or composition
 
inorganic
formed from non-living materials
 
mineral
solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure
 
ore
material from which a metal or valuable mineral is extracted
 
isometric crystal system
blocks or cubes (example: salt)
 
tetragonal crystal system
four-sided prisms and double pyramids (example: zircon)
 
hexagonal crystal system
six-sided prisms (example: beryl)
 
orthorhombic crystal system
short, stubby crystals with all sides unequal (example: topaz)
 
monoclinic crystal system
short and stubby, but the sides tilt at each end, like a skewed tetragonal crystal (example: gypsum)
 
triclinic crystal system
flat with sharp edges, but do not have any right angles (example: feldspar)
 
cleavage
how a crystal breaks or splits when stressed
 
luster
how a mineral appears to reflect light
 
streak
the true color of a mineral in powdered form
 
lava
molten rock on Earth’s surface
 
magma
molten rock beneath Earth’s crust
 
clast
an individual particle or grain in sedimentary rock
 
degradation
breaking-down process that changes the minerals in rock
 
evaporite
chemical sedimentary rock formed when minerals are left behind by evaporated water
 
sediment
weathered rock, bone fragments, soil, and other particles carried by wind, water, and ice
 
stalactite
chemical sedimentary rock hanging from the ceiling of a cave
 
stalagmite
chemical sedimentary rock growing from the floor of a cave
 
contact metamorphism
changes in rocks caused by magma seeping into crustal rock; occurs at high temperature and low pressure
 
dynamic metamorphism
changes in rocks caused by tectonic plates rubbing sideways against one another; occurs at low to high temperatures and high pressure
 
foliation
layers or bands found in metamorphic rock
 
hydrothermal metamorphism
changes in rocks caused by chemicals in hot water; occurs at low temperature and low pressure
 
metamorphosis
physical, chemical, or structural change
 
regional metamorphism
changes in rocks caused by tectonic plates pushing together; occurs at low to high temperatures and medium pressure
 
lithification
pressure and chemical processes that transform sediments into rock
 
regolith
small pieces of broken down, weathered rock
 
subduction
sinking of one tectonic plate beneath another
 
uplift
rise of one part of Earth’s crust above another
 
biomass
organic material made from plants and animals
 
hydropower
use of water to generate electricity
 
renewable
able to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
 
turbine
engine with large blades
 
methane
compound of carbon and hydrogen (CH 4)
 
nonrenewable
unable to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
 
peat
partially decayed plant matter found in bogs
 
abrasion
wearing away or grinding by friction
 
dissolution
process of dissolving
 
hydrolysis
chemical reaction involving ions in water (OH- and H+)
 
oxidation
chemical reaction in which minerals are weakened by oxygen
 
weathering
breakdown and change of rocks and minerals over time
 
delta
triangular deposition of fine, fertile soil at the mouth of a river
 
deposition
placement of weathered rock and sediment by erosion
 
erosion
transport and deposition of weathered rock
 
medium
substance which enables the transport of weathered rock and sediment
 
horizon
layer of distinct soil
 
soil
top layer of mineral and organic material on Earth’s surface
 
soil profile
arrangement of horizons in a soil sample
 
topography
elevation and slope of land

French Vocabulary

 
À bientôt !
See you soon.
 
À demain !
See you tomorrow.
 
À tout à l’heure !
See you later.
 
Bonsoir !
Good evening !
 
Ça ne va pas.
It’s going bad!
 
Ça va ?
How is it going?
 
Comme ci, comme ça.
So-so.
 
Comment allez vous ?
How are you? (formal)
 
Comment t’appelles-tu ?
What’s your name? (informal)
 
Comment vas-tu ?
How are you? (informal)
 
Comment vous appelez-vous ?
What’s your name? (formal)
 
De rien.
You’re welcome.
 
enchanté,-e
Nice to meet you.
 
Et vous ?
And you? (formal)
 
Et toi ?
And you? (informal)
 
Il n’y a pas de quoi.
You’re welcome.
 
Je m’appelle…
My name is….
 
Je vais bien, merci.
I’m doing well, thank you.
 
Pas mal, merci.
Not bad, thank you.
 
Pas grand-chose.
Not much!
 
Quoi de neuf ?
What’s new? (informal)
 
voici
Here is….
 
bavarder
to chat
 
chanter
to sing
 
danser
to dance
 
diner
to eat dinner
 
écouter
to listen
 
étudier
to study
 
habiter
to live
 
jouer à l’ordinateur
to play on the computer
 
jouer aux jeux vidéo
to play video games
 
parler le français, l’éspagnol, l’anglais, l’italien
to speak French, Spanish, English, Italian
 
regarder la télévision, un film, un match de basket
to watch television, a film, a basketball game
 
travailler
to work
 
téléphoner
to call (on the phone)
 
adorer
to love
 
aimer
to like
 
aimer mieux
to prefer
 
détester
to detest; to hate
 
préférer
to prefer
 
Je ne préfère pas
I don’t prefer
 
Je préfère
I prefer
 
Qu’est-ce que tu aimes faire ?
What do you like to do?
 
N’est-ce pas ?
Right?
 
non
no
 
oui
yes
 
Y a-t-il _____ ?
Is there _____?; Are there _____?

Odysseyware Physical Fitness Answers

 
Adrenaline
A hormone released in response to stress that speeds up the heart rate and can increase blood pressure.
 
Amino acids
The basic building blocks of proteins
 
Blood clot
A clump of red blood cells that are stuck together with various proteins as they move through the body
 
Calories
The measurement of how much energy is in the food that is eaten
 
Cardiovascular fitness
A type of physical conditioning that primarily strengthens the heart, lungs, and blood vessels
 
Circulatory system
The parts of the body that are related to the movement of blood
 
Cortisol
A hormone released in response to stress that puts more sugar in the blood to increase energy and narrow arteries to increase blood pressure
 
Dehydration
A condition in which the body doesn’t have all the water it needs to function properly; can be mild or severe and lead to death
 
Dementia
A condition in older people in which the brain does not work properly
 
Eating disorder
Unhealthy eating habits relating to the amount of food eaten
 
Emotional health
The ability to keep feelings and thoughts stable during activities experienced in life
 
Essential amino acids
Nine protein building blocks that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained through food
 
Fiber
A non-digestible substance that come from plant sources; helps the body move food through the digestive system
 
Flexibility
Type of physical conditioning that lengthens the muscles and improves joint movement
 
Glycemic index
The measure of how quickly foods are being digested in the body
 
Hydrated
A condition in which the body has the proper amount of water in it to perform normally
 
internal system
The organs inside the body and how they function together
 
Limiting factors
Obstacles or difficulties that keep a person from accomplishing goals, such as regular exercise
 
Macular degeneration
Condition of the eyes where a person begins to lose vision in some areas
 
Mental focus
The ability to concentrate on thinking tasks
 
Mental health
The ability to think clearly and perform the mental tasks necessary in life
 
Muscular System
The part of the body that is made of the muscles
 
Muscular fitness
A type of physical conditioning that strengthens specific muscles
 
Neurological System
A part of the body that is made up of the brain, nerves, and spinal cord
 
Obese
having an excess of body fat; someone who’s very heavy or overweight
 
Osteoporosis
A condition in which the body’s bones become thinner and weak
 
Periodontitis
A condition that can occur when the gums age and become more susceptible to infection
 
Physical fitness
The measure of health and condition of the heart, lungs, and joints of an individual
 
Pneumonia
A lung infection that can make it difficult to breathe and even cause death
 
Regular exercise
A plan in which a person chooses to exercise a certain number of times every week
 
Saturated fats
Unhealthy fats from animal sources which tend to be solid at room temperature
 
Serving size
The actual amount of food that is eaten in a single meal
 
Skeletal system
Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints
 
Sugar crash
The low energy and hungry feeling that come when the body recovers from the sugar high
 
Sugar high
The hyperactive and edgy feeling that comes when there is too much sugar in the blood stream
 
Unsaturated fats
Healthy fats from plant or fish sources which tend to be liquid at room temperature
 
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
the proportion of one’s waist circumference to one’s hip circumference; used to determine if there is too much fat on a person’s stomach for them to be healthy
 
Activities of daily living
The tasks you need to do each day, such as walking upstairs or eating
 
Activity log
A chart that allows you to write down information about the exercises you perform
 
Antagonistic muscles
Muscle pairs arranged to work against each other to move a joint
 
Ballistic stretching
Stretching that involves forceful bouncing movements (not recommended because it increases the risk of injury)
 
Cool-down
Activities that slow down and relax different parts of the body after exercise is over
 
Dynamic stretching
Stretching that involves gentle, sports-related movements
 
Exercise
Activities that improve the health of the heart, lungs, muscles, and joints of a person
 
General warm-up
Low intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow
 
Golgi tendon organ
A sensory organ in the muscles that relaxes them in response to static stretching
 
Lactic acid
A by-product produced in the muscles during exercise (waste product of cells)
 
Muscle fibers
Muscle cells
 
Muscle myofibrils
Small sections in a muscle cell that move when a muscle is being used
 
Muscle spindle
A sensory organ in the muscles that tightens in resources to sudden movement
 
Planned exercise activities
Exercise that is scheduled ahead of time and involves performing specific activities
 
Posture
The way you hold your body when you stand or sit
 
Range of motion
How far in any direction a part of the body is able to move
 
Specific warm-up
Activities that focus on preparing specific parts of the body for exercise
 
Static stretching
Stretching that involves no movement during the muscle stretch
 
Varicose veins
Veins in the body, usually the legs, which have been stretched out of shape and do not move blood through the body effectively anymore
 
Warm-up
Activities that get the muscles and joints ready for exercise
 
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Type of energy needed by the body for muscle movement
 
Blood pressure
The force exerted on the walls of the blood vessels by the blood that moves through men
 
Cardiac output
The total amount of blood the heart pumps in one minute
 
Cardiovascular exercise
Continuous activity in which the heart and lungs work harder than they do during normal body functions, thus spreading more oxygen throughout the body
 
Dilate
To widen or get larger in size
 
Duration
The length of time an exercise workout lasts
 
EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption)
Increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity
 
Fat
A body tissue used to store unneeded energy
 
Heart rate
The number of times the heart beats In one minute
 
High impact
Exercises designed to put full weight and impact of the body on the joints
 
Intensity
The difficulty level of the exercise that is being performed
 
Low impact
Exercise that does not put excessive strain or full bodily weight on the joints of the body
 
Maximum heart rate
The highest rate at which the heart can be made to beat during very intense exercise
 
Oxygen consumption
The amount of oxygen the muscles in the body need in order to produce energy for movement
 
Oxygen deficit
A state in which the muscles are not getting the amount of oxygen they need to produce the energy necessary for movement
 
Resting heart rate
The number of times your heart beats in one minute when a person is resting
 
Steady state
The condition when the muscles of the body are regularly receiving the amount of oxygen they need to produce energy for movement
 
Stroke volume
The amount of blood the heart can pump in a single beat
 
Talk test
A method for measuring exercise intensity by observing the ability to talk while exercising
 
Target heart rate
A range in which the heart rate is fast enough to give cardiovascular benefit from exercise
 
Wind sprints
very short, high intensity exercise segments that are included in a moderate exercise session
 
Atrophy
The decrease in size and strength of a skeletal muscle due to inactivity
 
Body composition
The amount of fat compared to non-fat tissue in the body
 
Creeping obesity
A gradual addition of weight over the years that eventually leads to obesity
 
Exercise specificity principle
The muscles of the body will respond and be conditioned by the type of exercise that is performed
 
Hypertrophy
The increase in size of the muscle fibers in response to resistance training
 
Isometric exercise
Resistance training that does not involve movement
 
Isotonic exercise
Resistance training that involves movement
 
Metabolic rate
The speed at which the body is able to use the energy created in the digestion of food
 
Metabolism
The process by which food is changed into energy and used by the body
 
Muscle adaptation principle
The ability of a muscle to increase in size and strength to adjust to resistance placed on it
 
Muscle endurance
The ability of a muscle to move a weight repeatedly for an extended period of time
 
Muscle strength
The most amount of weight a muscle can move at a single time
 
Overload principle
The amount of resistance and duration put on a muscle so that it will become conditioned
 
Progressive resistance exercise
Strengthening of skeletal muscles by adding more physical strain on them over time, and letting them develop and adapt to this stress
 
Repetitions
The number of times in a row that resistance is applied to a muscle (also referred to as reps)
 
Rest
The amount of time in which the muscle relaxes and recovers between exercise sets
 
Resting metabolic rate
The amount of calories a body burns while at rest.
 
Resistance
Force or weight that’s used to make the muscle work harder to contract
 
Set
A group of repetitions
 
Skeletal muscles
Body tissue that’s connected to and moves the bones in the body
 
Tendon
Strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
 
The law of reversibility
Muscles will lose size and strength if resistance training is not continued
 
Valsalva maneuver
A harmful increase in blood pressure when a person holds their breath during resistance training
 
Adaptation
Something, such as a task, that has been modified or altered
 
Break
Any time regular tasks or goals are missed
 
Bursitis
inflammation of a bursa (a fluid-filled sac)
 
Cross-training
Using a variety of exercises to work the muscles of the body in different ways
 
Discouragement
Any feelings of sadness futility or lack of motivation that keeps you from succeeding as well as you could in a task or goal
 
Environment
The area and surroundings in which you perform a task
 
Feedback
Information gained from performance so that adjustments can be made
 
Goals
Purposes or results towards which effort is directed
 
Habit
The development of a consistent schedule for any task or activity
 
Mindset
A fixed mental attitude about a task or program
 
Motivation
An internal desire to accomplish the task or move forward toward a goal; the desire to begin and continue a task or program
 
Muscle fatigue
Extreme muscle tiredness
 
Overuse injury
An injury that’s caused by exercising without sufficient rest and recovery time
 
Plateau
A stage in which no visible progress is made towards a goal
 
Rehabilitate
To restore or strengthen back to good health
 
Self-monitoring
An exercise strategy that allows individuals themselves to determine how difficult an activity feels
 
Self-talk
An internal monologue you have with yourself about the way you view yourself in the daily situations of life
 
Set-backs
A situation in which a person has been prevented from reaching a desired performance or achievement
 
Support system
An individual or group of individuals that give assistance or encouragement to you
 
Tendinitis
Swelling, pain, and inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
 
Thought patterns
The types of positive or negative things that you were thinking about on a regular basis

Odysseyware Health Answers

 
Cell
The basic structural unit of the body.
 
Contract
To draw together.
 
Cytoplasm
The fluid-like substance contained within the cell membrane, the nucleus not included.
 
DNA
Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic “blueprint” that determines the cell’s purpose and function.
 
Nucleus
The organelle within a cell that functions as its brain, regulating its production of protein.
 
Organ
A group of tissues that works together to perform a specified bodily function.
 
Oranelle
A structure that performs a specific function within a cell.
 
System
Organs working together to perform a specific bodily function.
 
Tissue
A group of cells that have the same purpose.
 
Bad Cholesterol
low-density lipoproteins (LDL), derived from foods that are high in cholesterol and saturated fats (meat and dairy products, for example), and tend to cling together and attach themselves to the walls of the blood vessels; over time the formation builds and forms what is known as plaque
 
Benign Tumors
cannot spread to other tissues; they remain in the initial location, and are considered non-cancerous
 
Cardiovascular
refers to the entire circulatory system: heart, arteries, veins, blood vessels and capillaries; when cardiovascular refers specifically to the delivery of oxygen for the muscles, the lungs also are sometimes included in the cardiovascular system
 
Cholesterol
a fat-like substance that is naturally found in the body and, in and of itself, does not pose a health risk; it is used throughout the body and, thus, carried in the bloodstream; because it is not water-soluble, cholesterol is carried in the bloodstream by protein substances which, when combined with cholesterol, form lipoproteins
 
Chromosome
structure found in the cell that contains tightly wound strands of DNA
 
Chronic Illness
a disease that has a prolonged course, cannot cure itself, and rarely is it completely cured; these include cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis among others, are more common among the elderly, and account for approximately 70% of all deaths as well as 70% of all health care costs
 
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid is the carrier of all genetic information; the main component of chromosomes and contains all the instructions necessary for structure and function in an organism
 
Gene
a sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA that code for a specific product, which is usually protein
 
Genome
the complete set of hereditary instructions contained in the DNA
 
Good Cholesterol
high-density lipoproteins (HDL), derived primarily from unsaturated fats (vegetables and fruits); they tend to prevent LDLs from clinging together, and also prevent LDLs from attaching to the walls of blood vessels, preventing plaque and breaking down existing formations of plaque
 
Human Genome Project
a global partnership to map out the human genome; the project was completed in 2003
 
Malignant Tumors
are able to spread to other locations, invade and destroy other tissues
 
Protective Factor
something that decreases a person’s risk of developing a specific illness or disease
 
Proteins
important biological molecules with a complex folded structure
 
Quality of Life
quality of life is a concept that equates to an individual’s personal happiness and satisfaction; it is the degree to which you can enjoy life and all of the possibilities that life holds for you, and includes physical health and wellness, psychological well-being, social well-being, financial well-being, quality friendships and family relationships, and satisfying work and leisure activities
 
Alveoli
Air sacs within the lungs where the blood gets oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide.
 
Artery
A blood vessel that takes oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.
 
Atrium
One of two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the body.
 
Blood Vessels
Any of the arteries, veins, or capillaries that carry blood through the body.
 
cell
The basic structural unit of the body
 
contract
To draw together
 
cytoplasm
The fluid-like substance contained within the cell membrane, the nucleus not included
 
DNA
The genetic blueprint that determines the cell’s purpose and function
 
nucleus
The organelle within a cell that functions as its brain, regulating its production of protein
 
organ
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specific bodily function
 
organelle
A structure that performs a specific function within a cell.
 
system
Organs working together to perform a specific bodily function
 
tissue
A group of cells that have the same purpose
 
epithelial tissue
Tissue that regulates temperature, secretes lubricants, and protects the body from harmful substances
 
nerve tissue
Tissue that sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body
 
bad cholesterol
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), derived from foods that are high in cholesterol and saturated fats (meat and dairy products, for example), and tend to cling together and attach themselves to the walls of the blood vessels; over time the formation builds and forms what is known as plaque
 
benign tumors
Cannot spread to other tissues; they remain in the initial location, and are considered non-cancerous
 
cardiovascular
Refers to the entire circulatory system: heart, arteries, veins, blood vessels and capillaries; when this refers specifically to the delivery of oxygen for the muscles, the lungs also are sometimes included in this system
 
cholesterol
A fat-like substance that is naturally found in the body and, in and of itself, does not pose a health risk; it is used throughout the body and, thus, carried in the bloodstream; because it is not water-soluble, it is carried in the bloodstream by protein substances which, when combined with this, form lipoproteins
 
chromosome
Structure found in the cell that contains tightly wound strands of DNA
 
chronic illness
A disease that has a prolonged course, cannot cure itself, and rarely is it completely cured; these include cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis among others, are more common among the elderly, and account for approximately 70% of all deaths as well as 70% of all health care costs
 
gene
A sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA that code for a specific product, which is usually protein
 
genome
The complete set of hereditary instructions contained in the DNA
 
good cholesterol
High-density lipoproteins (HDL), derived primarily from unsaturated fats (vegetables and fruits); they tend to prevent LDLs from clinging together, and also prevent LDLs from attaching to the walls of blood vessels, preventing plaque and breaking down existing formations of plaque
 
Human Genome Project
A global partnership to map out the human genome; the project was completed in 2003
 
malignant tumors
Tumors that are able to spread to other locations, invade and destroy other tissues
 
protective factor
Something that decreases a person’s risk of developing a specific illness or disease
 
proteins
Important biological molecules with a complex folded structure
 
quality of life
A concept that equates to an individual’s personal happiness and satisfaction; it is the degree to which you can enjoy life and all of the possibilities that life holds for you, and includes physical health and wellness, psychological well-being, social well-being, financial well-being, quality friendships and family relationships, and satisfying work and leisure activities
 
coronary artery disease
A disease of the heart where the arteries and blood vessels become clogged with fat deposits called plaque
 
stroke
A medical condition caused by a disruption of blood flow in the arteries going to the brain
 
alveoli
Air sacs within the lungs where the blood gets oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide
 
artery
A blood vessel that takes oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
 
atrium
One of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the body
 
blood vessels
Any of the arteries, veins, or capillaries that carry blood through the body
 
bronchi
The two main airways connecting the trachea to the lungs
 
capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that pass food and oxygen to cells and receive waste from cells
 
chamber
A space or room within the heart
 
larynx
The section of the upper respiratory system that contains the vocal cords
 
pharynx
The section of the upper respiratory system that contains the vocal cords
 
plasma
The clear yellowish fluid portion of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
 
platelet
A cell fragment in the bloodstream which aids in the clotting of blood
 
pulmonary
Having to do with the lungs
 
systemic
Having to do with the entire body
 
trachea
The thin-walled airway connecting the pharynx with the bronchi
 
ventricle
One of the two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood
 
red blood cells
Blood cells that bring oxygen to cells and take carbon dioxide away
 
main organ of the circulatory system
the heart
 
aorta
the body’s main artery
 
pulmonary circulation
The circulation that brings carbon dioxide-filled blood to the lungs
 
systemic circulation
The circulation that disperses oxygen-rich blood throughout the body
 
epiglottis
Body part that prevents food or liquids from getting into the lungs

Odysseyware Poetry Vocabulary

 
alliteration
a repetition of the same first sound or letter in a group of words or a line of poetry
 
anapest
a metrical foot of three syllables, two unaccented followed by one accented, or two short followed by one long
 
assonance
a resemblance in the sound of words or syllables. a substitute for rhyme in which vowels are alike, but the consonants are different
 
connotation
what is suggested in a word in addition to the literal meaning
 
consonance
a poetic musical effect which uses a correspondence of consonant sounds
 
dactyl
a metrical foot with one accented or long syllable followed by two unaccented or short syllables
 
denotative meaning
The literal meaning of a word. The dictionary definition of a word
 
dominant foot
The foot used to form the basis of the meter; the foot most frequently used in a particular poem
 
iamb
a common metrical foot in English poetry consisting of only two syllables; consists of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented
 
ideal
a standard of perfection
 
imagery
To form pictures in the mind
 
pyrrhic
a measure in poetry that consists of two unaccented syllables
 
metaphor
an implied comparison between two different things
 
onomatopoeia
To use a word that imitates a sound associated with a specific object
 
personification
To represent a lifeless thing or quality as if it were alive
 
simile
a statement that one thing is like another
 
spondee
a metrical foot composed of two accented syllables
 
trochee
a two-syllable foot that stresses the first syllable
 
universal
a condition, principle, emotion, etc. applicable to an understood by all people

History

 
The religious revolution in Europe that began by reforming Catholicism and ended by establishing Protestantism was called the:
Reformation
 
The change from hand labor to machine labor was brought about during the period of time known as the:
Industrial Revolution
 
A rebirth of trade and commerce in Europe was brought about by the ________.
Crusades
 
Why was medieval life centered around the castle?
It provided protection from outside sources
 
Martin Luther was the leader of what movement?
Reformation
 
What is most characteristic of Johann Gutenberg?
Inventor of the printing press
 
Which industry makes cloth?
textile
 
Someone who is courteous is:
affable
 
When did the Renaissance era end?
fourteenth century
 
What increased trade with Western Europe?
American Colonies
 
Choose examples from the list below that best represent the increase of economic development in manufacturing industries in European countries and their colonies during the Industrial Revolution.
cotton manufacturing textile manufacturing iron manufacturing
 
Which country became a major producer of cotton?
United States
 
Why did France have difficulty competing in the Industrial Revolution?
not enough coal
 
What was England’s primary industry during the Industrial Revolution?
textiles
 
What are mechanical engineers?
people who design machines
 
Increase in life expectancy and education are generally signs of economic progress in a society. Select effects of the Industrial Revolution in England that do not support this relationship between culture and economics.
Children were forced to work in factories. Cholera and tuberculosis ran rampant in overcrowded cities. Lack of sanitation in cities cause illness and death.
 
Who wrote about the living conditions in England during the Industrial Revolution?
Dickens
 
When employers and union representatives meet to discuss conditions of employment, this is called _____.
collective bargaining
 
What made the transition from one-at-a-time manufacturing to mass production possible?
new technology
 
_____ used coal to power the first steam engine.
Thomas Savery
 
Which inventions helped usher in the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
a machine that helped weavers increase volume a spinning wheel that required no human involvement the coal-powered steam engine that drained water from mines
 
Which reforms occurred during the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
forming of labour unions improved conditions of factories restrictions limiting number of hours women and children could work
 
What were some problems that occurred during the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
poor sanitation overcrowding in cities long work hours low wages
 
Why were factories a good source of income? Select all that apply.
hey produce goods at an exceptionally fast pace. They often employed low wage earners. They employed women and children at disgracefully low wages.
 
How did the steam engine impact trade? Select all that apply.
in factories as a means of production helping to transport huge amounts of raw materials throughout England on trains by creating more factories to create steam engines

Liberal Arts

 
Three types of language
spoken words, written words, nonverbal expressions
 
Skills you need:
listening, speaking, reading, writing
 
context
the parts of a sentence that influence the meaning of a word
 
obsolete
out-of-date, no longer in use
 
peers
persons of the same grade, age, rank, etc.
 
root
the part of a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added
 
How do you increase your vocabulary?
Listen and read speakers/writers who are older
 
How does language change over time?
Language derives its meaning from culture
 
Denotation
The dictionary, or literal definition of a word
 
Connotation
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
 
affective connotations
personal feelings a word arouses
 
effective connotations
the effect the word creates

Spanish Vocabulary

el almuerzo
el almuerzo
lunch
la amiga
la amiga
female friend
el amigo
el amigo
friend
la biblioteca
la biblioteca
 
el caballo
el caballo
 
la cafetería
la cafetería
 
el carro
el carro
 
la casa
la casa
 
las ciencias
las ciencias
science
el cine
el cine
 
la clase
la clase
 
la comida
la comida
 
la computadora
la computadora
 
el director de la escuela
el director de la escuela
 
la escuela
la escuela
 
el estudiante
el estudiante
student
la estudiante
la estudiante
female student
los estudios sociales
los estudios sociales
 
la geografía
la geografía
 
el gimnasio
el gimnasio
 
la hermana
la hermana
 
el hermano
el hermano
 
la historia
la historia
 
hoy
hoy
 
el (idioma) inglés
el (idioma) inglés
 
la madre
la madre
 
la maestra
la maestra
female teacher
el maestro
el maestro
 
mañana
mañana
 
las matemáticas
las matemáticas
 
la niña
la niña
 
el niño
el niño
 
la oficina
la oficina
 
el ordenador
el ordenador
computer (Spain)
el padre
el padre
 
el parque
el parque
 
la película
la película
movie
el perro
el perro
 
la piscina
la piscina
 
la tienda
la tienda
 
andar en bicicleta
andar en bicicleta
 
andar en patineta
andar en patineta
 
ayudar
ayudar
 
buscar
buscar
 
caminar
caminar
 
cenar
cenar
 
contestar
contestar
 
cuidar
cuidar
 
dibujar
dibujar
 
enseñar
enseñar
 
entrar
entrar
 
esperar
esperar
 
llegar
llegar
 
llevar
llevar
 
mandar una carta
mandar una carta
 
mirar
mirar
 
necesitar
necesitar
 
pasar tiempo con amigos
pasar tiempo con amigos
 
pasear
pasear
 
patinar
patinar
 
pintar
pintar
 
tocar la guitarra
tocar la guitarra
 
tocar
tocar
 
preparar
preparar
 
usar
usar
 

Science

 
conserve
To protect from loss or from being used up.
 
consumer
A person who uses food, clothing, or anything grown by producers.
 
contour plowing
Plowing around hills to prevent erosion.
 
decay
To become rotten.
 
decomposer
Something that rots something else.
 
dew
Moisture from the air that condenses and collects in small drops on cool surfaces during the night.
 
ecologist
A person who studies organisms and their environment.
 
ecology
The science that deals with the relation of living things to their environments and to each other.
 
environment
All the surrounding things, conditions, and influences that have to do with the growth of things.
 
erosion
Being worn away little by little.
 
extinct
No longer existing.
 
fungi
Plural of fungus. Plant-like organism without flowers, leaves, or green coloring matter.
 
geyser
A spring that sends up jets of hot water or steam.
 
habitat
A place where an animal or plant naturally lives or grows.
 
moisture
Slight wetness.
 
mold
A fungus that appears on food when it is left in a warm, moist place.
 
nuclear
Having to do with atomic energy.
 
nutrient
A nourishing substance.
 
photosynthesis
The process in green plants and algae that produces carbohydrates and oxygen by using chlorophyll.
 
plankton
Small organisms that live in water.
 
pollution
Something which makes an environment dirty or impure.
 
population
A part of the inhabitants of an area.
 
preserve
To keep safe, to protect.
 
producer
One who makes things that are used by others.
 
resource
Any supply that will meet a need.
 
sequoia
An evergreen tree of California.
 
smog
A combination of smoke and fog in the air.
 
solar
Of the sun.
 
vapor
Moisture in the air.
 
invertebrate
An animal without a backbone
 
vertebrate
An animal that has a backbone
 
abdomen
The last part of the three parts of an insect’s body
 
antenna
A long feeler on the head of an insect
 
thorax
The middle part of an insect’s three-part body
 
mollusk
Invertebrate animals with soft bodies
 
amphibian
Cold-blooded vertebrates that live on land and in water
 
cold-blooded
Animals whose body heat changes with the temperature of their environment
 
reptile
Cold-blooded vertebrate that has scales and lays eggs
 
warm-blooded
Animals who keep the same body temperature
 
mammal
Warm-blooded vertebrate that gives birth to live young
 
adaptation
The change living things make to fit with their environment
 
camouflage
Coloring that make animals look like their environment
 
mimicry
The imitation of one organism by another
 
mutualism
A relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit
 
inherit
To receive traits from parents or other family members
 
endangered species
Plants or animals that are close to being extinct
 
extinct
Plants and animals that once lived on earth but all of their kind have died
 
habitat
The natural environment where a plant or animal lives
 
conserve
To protect from loss or from being used up
 
block and tackle
A set of two or more pulleys (the blocks) with ropes (the tackles) used to move objects.
 
complex
Made up of a number of parts.
 
energy
The ability to do work.
 
force
A pushing or pulling to move an object.
 
friction
A rubbing of one thing against another.
 
fulcrum
The support on which a lever turns or is supported in moving or lifting something.
 
gravity
The natural force that causes objects to move or tend to move toward the center of the earth.
 
inclined plane
A sloping, flat surface.
 
kinetic
Energy of motion.
 
lever
A bar for raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down at the other end.
 
load
What one is carrying.
 
machine
A device for applying power.
 
pitch
Amount of slope.
 
potential
Stored energy.
 
pulley
A wheel with a grooved rim in which a rope can run, and so lift weights.
 
ramp
A sloping way connecting two different levels.
 
screw
An inclined plane wrapped around in a spiral.
 
thread
The sloping ridge that winds around a screw.
 
wedge
Two inclined planes joined together to form a sharp edge.
 
wheel and axle
A wheel with the shaft on which it turns.
 
work
A force moving an object.

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