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Odysseyware Biology Answers
Match the term with the correct definition
|DNA||a giant molecule consisting of the sugar deoxyribose, phosphates, and nitrogen bases; contains the coded genetic information|
|Cell||the basic unit of life|
|Homeostasis||the maintenance of a constant internal body environment by an organism’s body|
|Metabolism||All of the chemical reactions in the organism for maintenance of the processes of life|
|Organelle||a small structure within the cell that serves specialized functions|
|Ecology||the study of living things’ dependence on each other and their environment; the relationship of an organism with its total environment|
|Phenotypic cure||the alteration of the phenotypic expression of a genetic defect|
|Evolution||Living things adapt to their environment in order to survive as a species. Natural Selection is the driving force behind evolution and allows for favorable traits to be passed down to the offspring.|
|Ecology||is the study of organisms and how they interact with other organisms and the environment. This study focuses on the interdependence between biotic factors, which are living things, and abiotic factors, which are non-living things.|
|Hypothesis||an educated guess or rational explanation about a specific phenomenon|
|Can you define life?||1. made of cells.|
2. must have DNA
3. must be able to reproduce
4. grow and develop
5. use and obtain energy
6. respond to their environment
7. must maintain homeostasis
8. change over time
|Law||a universal and absolute fact or truth about a specific action or phenomenon|
|Photosynthesis||a process in green plants that involves the use of carbon dioxide and water in the production of glucose and oxygen using the Sun’s energy|
|Science||Body of factual knowledge that exists around the world, and the method of study used to arrive at that knowledge|
|Scientific method||a recognized means of inquiry to provide scientific answers to questions|
|Theory||an explanation for a natural phenomenon that appears to be supported by evidence gathered over a period of time|
|Eye wash station||this si used when a chemical splash of gas fumes has reached the eyes|
|Fire blanket||blanket is used to smother fires|
|Fire extinguisher||used to put out small fires|
|First aid kit||kit used for any small cuts or injuries that occur in the lab|
|Lab shower||the shower is used when a chemical spill has occurred on clothes of in case of a fire|
|Ventilation hood||a work station that shields the user form any toxic or dangerous fumes and vents the substance away.|
|Class||a taxonomic category containing a group of similar orders; between order and division in plant classification; between order and phylum in animal classification|
|Classification||a system of distinguishing groups for purposes of identification; a means or device for sorting into groups with similar characteristics|
|Division||in plant classification, a grouping of similar classes; between kingdom and class in taxa|
|Domain||the largest taxonomic category|
|Family||a taxonomic category containing a group of similar genera; between the taxa of order and genus|
|Genus||a taxonomic category containing a group of similar species; between the taxa of family and species; the first name of the scientific name; (plural, genera)|
|Kingdom||a taxonomic category containing a group of similar phylums; between the taxa of domain and phylum|
|Order||a taxonomic category containing a group of similar families; between the taxa of class and family|
|Phylum||a grouping of similar classes; a taxonomic category between kingdom and class; (plural, phyla)|
|Species||the smallest taxonomic category, containing only similar varieties of an organism; the second word of the scientific name|
|Taxon||the categories used in classifying organisms (i.e., class, order); (plural, taxa)|
|Taxonomist||a scientist who classifies organisms|
|Taxonomy||the science of the classification of organisms|
|Archaea||also known as archaebacteria; prokaryotic organisms with different structures than bacteria; believed to be the most primitive organisms, capable of inhabiting extreme environments|
|Binomial nomenclature||the two-name system of naming living things used in classification|
|Eubacteria||prokaryotic organisms including bacteria and cyanobacteria|
|Eukaryote||a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and/or organelles as its major characteristic|
|Morphology||the form or appearance of an organism; the collection of physical characteristics and the structure which make up an organism; a basis for species definition|
|Prokaryote||a cell whose nucleus is not bound by a membrane|
|Reproductive isolation||the separation of populations of organisms by some type of barrier to produce variations of species; no reproduction or exchange of genes occurs between the separated groups; a basis for species definition|
Odysseyware Civics Answers
unit 1 pre-test questions
If a political party puts the party agenda above the needs of the people it is known as ________.
The Democratic Party ________.
a. at one point had two presidential candidates in the General Elections, but lost to Abraham Lincoln b. had the only presidential candidate that was elected for three consecutive terms c. held control of the Senate for over 30 years
The ______ believed in a loose construction of the Constitution.
The Democratic split was so severe during the 1860 elections that ________.
They ran two candidates for the presidency.
Select the Democratic Presidents.
Kennedy, Johnson, FDR, Buchanan
Select the Republican Presidents.
Eisenhower, Reagan, Taft, Hoover, Grant, Hayes
During the first three presidential elections the President and the Vice President were chosen by ________.
Which of the following are major political parties in Great Britain?
Conservative + Labour
The headquarters for both major American political parties are located in ________.
In 1992, Ross Perot formed the ________.
United We Stand Party
How do local party organizations differ from national committees?
Only the national committee raises money.
How can you become a member of a political party?
Registering to vote with the party you wish to join.
What do both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party NOT officially have?
Why are political parties important?
a. A country is not subject to the whims of one person who maintains absolute power. b. Stances on issues remain somewhat flexible and allows a country to change its mind about the direction it wants to go as they go through the voting process.
Started the Democratic Party
Began as a series of anti-slavery political meetings held in the Midwest in 1854.
Limits the government to the powers which the Constitution delegated to it.
Free interpretation of the Constitution, allowing the government all powers not denied it.
Republican President during the Civil War.
Gathering for the purpose of creating a Constitution which laid down the laws for running the U.S.
The ________ won fourteen of the eighteen presidential elections held between 1860 through 1928.
The ________ won the Presidency in the 90s but lost control of the Congress.
Which of the following are the function of political parties?
Selecting the candidate.
Which of the following might a political party do only at the local level?
Inform voters of the need to improve local water facilities.
Step One of the decision making process
A state legislature is considering passing a bill that would limit funding for senior centers.
Step Two of the decision making process
A state representative interviews seniors in the representative’s district to see how this decision might impact them.
Step Three of the decision making process
Applying for federal funding is time-consuming and requires more regulations to be put in place.
Step Four of the decision making process
The state legislature can limit funding for senior centers, apply for federal funding to cover the cost of funding senior centers, or raise taxes.
Who was praised for his efforts in the Persian Gulf War, but was criticized for his poor efforts in strengthening America’s economy?
Which committee sends political leaders to certain states to campaign for their party’s candidate?
The “Era of Good Feelings” was ______.
A time when America had only one party, the Democratic-Republicans.
In the early days of America’s democracy, voting was done ________.
Which of the following are distinctive features of the Australian ballot?
a. names of all candidates appear on a single ballot b. it is prepared by the state or county at public expense c. it is distributed at polling places by election officials
Which of the following are true?
a. There are generally between three to five election officers at each polling place. b. A primary is an early election in which delegates select and nominate candidates for office. c. George H. Bush was once Vice President under Ronald Reagan.
Titles of offices appear across the ballot; the candidates of parties for each office are below the titles.
A criticism of elections
National, state, and local elections come on the same day.
Used to elect the President, Vice-President, and members of Congress.
Which of the following are types of public buildings used for polling places?
Schools, court houses, fire stations.
Chosen by the election board
Inspectors and Judges
Responsible for the proper conduct of the election.
Absentee ballots are offered to _______.
a. Voters who will be out of town on election day b. Anyone who asks for them c. A country election volunteer
In absentee voting, a person marks the ballot and then swears for it before a _______.
The Australian ballot is another name for a _______.
On a(n) ________ ballot, only the names of the candidates for the highest office appears on the ballot.
Many argue it would be beneficial to have few elections because _______.
Fewer elections would bring a higher voter turnout.
What is the second step in the decision-making process?
Which state was apart of the Baker v. Carr case?
Of the following states, which one most likely has the lowest number of congressional districts?
unit 2 pre-test questions
What is this statement an example of? “In the interest of all America and even the world, I will lower all taxes, increase jobs, and make the quality of life two times better than it has ever been in this state.”
Public opinion can never be any sounder than when it is based on _____.
Gallup Poll® and the Harris Poll® are two organizations that _______.
have developed techniques for extracting important data on American opinions
Bias is a part of media because ___________.
newspaper publishers have very definite political, social, and economic beliefs
How does television media change our perspective on a topic?
A moving image can have a galvanizing effect and can motivate in ways print cannot.
An ion is an atom with a net electrical charge due to ______.
either of the above
In the example in the lesson, 0.10 mole of sodium chloride or magnesium chloride or aluminum chloride was added to one liter of water. How many moles of each chloride are in one milliliter of the respective solutions?Hint: There are 0.10 moles per liter. Recall how many milliliters are in a liter and divide 0.10 by that number. (Remember to use the proper number of significant figures.)
Assume that you measured exactly 2.0 mL of the sodium chloride solution into a small test tube. How many moles of sodium chloride are in the tube?
Now assume you measure out exactly 2.0 mL of aluminum chloride into a third test tube. How many moles of aluminum chloride are in the tube?
Balance the following equation: ___ MgCl2 + ___ AgNO3 –> ___ AgCl + ___ Mg(NO3)2
– blank – 2 – 2 – blank
Balance the following equation: ___ AlCl3 + ___ AgNO3 –> ___ AgCl + ___ Al(NO3)3
– blank – 3 – 3 – blank
How would Mg change to gain a noble gas structure?
lose 2 electrons
How would B change to gain stability?
lose 3 electrons
How could Cl change to gain stability?
gain 1 electron
How many valence electrons does fluorine have?
How many valence electrons does calcium have?
What would barium do to obtain a noble gas structure?
lose 2 electrons
What is the oxidation number for Ba?
What is the oxidation number for Cl?
Odysseyware Earth Science Answers
smaller earthquakes that occur after a major earthquake
waves that travel through the interior of Earth; there are two types: primary and secondary waves
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material
immediate return of deformed rock to its natural shape
location on the earth’s surface directly over the focus of an earthquake
specific point in the earth where the rock layers along a fault move, producing an earthquake
wet soil behaves like a liquid and is no longer able to support buildings during an earthquake
waves that travel on the surface of the earth; there is one type of surface wave: Love waves
mini-quakes that usually occur before a major earthquake
measure of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake
Mercalli Intensity Scale
scale that measures the effects or severity of an earthquake
moment magnitude scale
newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake
scale of magnitude based on the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake
areas on active faults where a major earthquake hasn’t occurred in a long time
a record of the time and intensity of the energy waves produced by an earthquake
instrument used to record and measure vibrations from earthquakes or earth tremors
scientific study of earthquakes
process used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake
arch-shaped, upward fold in rock
block of rock below the slant of a fault
a lower block of rock between two normal faults
block of rock above the slant of a fault
an uplifted block of rock between two normal faults
a ramp-like fold between flat rock layers at different elevations
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall
cliff-like landform created by a normal fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions
U-shaped, downward fold in rock
magma that is a mix of basaltic and rhyolitic; eruption may or may not be explosive
magma that has low viscosity and low silica and gas content; eruption is non-explosive
cinder cone volcano
volcano formed of volcanic rock and ash; erodes quickly
volcano that is tall and steep; formed of lava and volcanic debris
non-explosive or very mild volcanic eruption
an active area of volcanoes due to a consistent source of magma in the asthenosphere
the most powerful, explosive type of volcanic eruption
volcanic flow that contains a high concentration of gases, ash, and small rocks
magma that has a high viscosity and high silica and gas content; eruption tends to be very explosive
volcano that has tall, broad slopes; formed by repeated, gradual lava flows
an intermittent explosive volcanic eruption
ability of a substance to resist flowing
an avalanche of water, mud, and other materials that a volcanic eruption can produce
energy produced from the heat of magma and other volcanic materials
volcanic rock and debris that is blasted from a volcano during an eruption
instrument used to measure volcanic gases
gassy smoke released by a volcano
instrument used to measure ground swelling
a large mass of hardened igneous rock beneath all layers of sedimentary rock
vertical intrusion of magma between rock layers
igneous rock that forms on Earth’s surface
a volcanic island under sea that has been cut off by wave erosion
igneous rock that forms in Earth’s interior
intrusive rock that pushes its way between sedimentary strata in the shape of a dome
an underwater volcano
horizontal intrusion of magma between rock layers
tall feature that forms when the sides of a volcano erode, leaving the rock that filled the central vent of the volcano
someone who creates maps
provides direction of north, east, south, and west
light, thin line that separates rock units or types on a geologic map
semi-dark line that indicates the ridge of a fold on a geologic map
shows locations and types of rocks and other features, like faults and folds
provides an explanation of lines and symbols given on a map
the ratio of distance represented on a map to distance on Earth
the distance between contour lines of elevation
lines of equal elevation that display height, shape, and steepness of ground features
teeth-like marks on contour lines that indicate a depression or sunken area
also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines
precious, rare, or valuable mineral
having a uniform structure or composition
formed from non-living materials
solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure
material from which a metal or valuable mineral is extracted
isometric crystal system
blocks or cubes (example: salt)
tetragonal crystal system
four-sided prisms and double pyramids (example: zircon)
hexagonal crystal system
six-sided prisms (example: beryl)
orthorhombic crystal system
short, stubby crystals with all sides unequal (example: topaz)
monoclinic crystal system
short and stubby, but the sides tilt at each end, like a skewed tetragonal crystal (example: gypsum)
triclinic crystal system
flat with sharp edges, but do not have any right angles (example: feldspar)
how a crystal breaks or splits when stressed
how a mineral appears to reflect light
the true color of a mineral in powdered form
molten rock on Earth’s surface
molten rock beneath Earth’s crust
an individual particle or grain in sedimentary rock
breaking-down process that changes the minerals in rock
chemical sedimentary rock formed when minerals are left behind by evaporated water
weathered rock, bone fragments, soil, and other particles carried by wind, water, and ice
chemical sedimentary rock hanging from the ceiling of a cave
chemical sedimentary rock growing from the floor of a cave
changes in rocks caused by magma seeping into crustal rock; occurs at high temperature and low pressure
changes in rocks caused by tectonic plates rubbing sideways against one another; occurs at low to high temperatures and high pressure
layers or bands found in metamorphic rock
changes in rocks caused by chemicals in hot water; occurs at low temperature and low pressure
physical, chemical, or structural change
changes in rocks caused by tectonic plates pushing together; occurs at low to high temperatures and medium pressure
pressure and chemical processes that transform sediments into rock
small pieces of broken down, weathered rock
sinking of one tectonic plate beneath another
rise of one part of Earth’s crust above another
organic material made from plants and animals
use of water to generate electricity
able to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
engine with large blades
compound of carbon and hydrogen (CH 4)
unable to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
partially decayed plant matter found in bogs
wearing away or grinding by friction
process of dissolving
chemical reaction involving ions in water (OH- and H+)
chemical reaction in which minerals are weakened by oxygen
breakdown and change of rocks and minerals over time
triangular deposition of fine, fertile soil at the mouth of a river
placement of weathered rock and sediment by erosion
transport and deposition of weathered rock
substance which enables the transport of weathered rock and sediment
layer of distinct soil
top layer of mineral and organic material on Earth’s surface
arrangement of horizons in a soil sample
elevation and slope of land
À bientôt !
See you soon.
À demain !
See you tomorrow.
À tout à l’heure !
See you later.
Good evening !
Ça ne va pas.
It’s going bad!
Ça va ?
How is it going?
Comme ci, comme ça.
Comment allez vous ?
How are you? (formal)
Comment t’appelles-tu ?
What’s your name? (informal)
Comment vas-tu ?
How are you? (informal)
Comment vous appelez-vous ?
What’s your name? (formal)
Nice to meet you.
Et vous ?
And you? (formal)
Et toi ?
And you? (informal)
Il n’y a pas de quoi.
My name is….
Je vais bien, merci.
I’m doing well, thank you.
Pas mal, merci.
Not bad, thank you.
Quoi de neuf ?
What’s new? (informal)
to eat dinner
jouer à l’ordinateur
to play on the computer
jouer aux jeux vidéo
to play video games
parler le français, l’éspagnol, l’anglais, l’italien
to speak French, Spanish, English, Italian
regarder la télévision, un film, un match de basket
to watch television, a film, a basketball game
to call (on the phone)
to detest; to hate
Je ne préfère pas
I don’t prefer
Qu’est-ce que tu aimes faire ?
What do you like to do?
N’est-ce pas ?
Y a-t-il _____ ?
Is there _____?; Are there _____?
Odysseyware Physical Fitness Answers
A hormone released in response to stress that speeds up the heart rate and can increase blood pressure.
The basic building blocks of proteins
A clump of red blood cells that are stuck together with various proteins as they move through the body
The measurement of how much energy is in the food that is eaten
A type of physical conditioning that primarily strengthens the heart, lungs, and blood vessels
The parts of the body that are related to the movement of blood
A hormone released in response to stress that puts more sugar in the blood to increase energy and narrow arteries to increase blood pressure
A condition in which the body doesn’t have all the water it needs to function properly; can be mild or severe and lead to death
A condition in older people in which the brain does not work properly
Unhealthy eating habits relating to the amount of food eaten
The ability to keep feelings and thoughts stable during activities experienced in life
Essential amino acids
Nine protein building blocks that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained through food
A non-digestible substance that come from plant sources; helps the body move food through the digestive system
Type of physical conditioning that lengthens the muscles and improves joint movement
The measure of how quickly foods are being digested in the body
A condition in which the body has the proper amount of water in it to perform normally
The organs inside the body and how they function together
Obstacles or difficulties that keep a person from accomplishing goals, such as regular exercise
Condition of the eyes where a person begins to lose vision in some areas
The ability to concentrate on thinking tasks
The ability to think clearly and perform the mental tasks necessary in life
The part of the body that is made of the muscles
A type of physical conditioning that strengthens specific muscles
A part of the body that is made up of the brain, nerves, and spinal cord
having an excess of body fat; someone who’s very heavy or overweight
A condition in which the body’s bones become thinner and weak
A condition that can occur when the gums age and become more susceptible to infection
The measure of health and condition of the heart, lungs, and joints of an individual
A lung infection that can make it difficult to breathe and even cause death
A plan in which a person chooses to exercise a certain number of times every week
Unhealthy fats from animal sources which tend to be solid at room temperature
The actual amount of food that is eaten in a single meal
Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints
The low energy and hungry feeling that come when the body recovers from the sugar high
The hyperactive and edgy feeling that comes when there is too much sugar in the blood stream
Healthy fats from plant or fish sources which tend to be liquid at room temperature
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
the proportion of one’s waist circumference to one’s hip circumference; used to determine if there is too much fat on a person’s stomach for them to be healthy
Activities of daily living
The tasks you need to do each day, such as walking upstairs or eating
A chart that allows you to write down information about the exercises you perform
Muscle pairs arranged to work against each other to move a joint
Stretching that involves forceful bouncing movements (not recommended because it increases the risk of injury)
Activities that slow down and relax different parts of the body after exercise is over
Stretching that involves gentle, sports-related movements
Activities that improve the health of the heart, lungs, muscles, and joints of a person
Low intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow
Golgi tendon organ
A sensory organ in the muscles that relaxes them in response to static stretching
A by-product produced in the muscles during exercise (waste product of cells)
Small sections in a muscle cell that move when a muscle is being used
A sensory organ in the muscles that tightens in resources to sudden movement
Planned exercise activities
Exercise that is scheduled ahead of time and involves performing specific activities
The way you hold your body when you stand or sit
Range of motion
How far in any direction a part of the body is able to move
Activities that focus on preparing specific parts of the body for exercise
Stretching that involves no movement during the muscle stretch
Veins in the body, usually the legs, which have been stretched out of shape and do not move blood through the body effectively anymore
Activities that get the muscles and joints ready for exercise
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Type of energy needed by the body for muscle movement
The force exerted on the walls of the blood vessels by the blood that moves through men
The total amount of blood the heart pumps in one minute
Continuous activity in which the heart and lungs work harder than they do during normal body functions, thus spreading more oxygen throughout the body
To widen or get larger in size
The length of time an exercise workout lasts
EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption)
Increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity
A body tissue used to store unneeded energy
The number of times the heart beats In one minute
Exercises designed to put full weight and impact of the body on the joints
The difficulty level of the exercise that is being performed
Exercise that does not put excessive strain or full bodily weight on the joints of the body
Maximum heart rate
The highest rate at which the heart can be made to beat during very intense exercise
The amount of oxygen the muscles in the body need in order to produce energy for movement
A state in which the muscles are not getting the amount of oxygen they need to produce the energy necessary for movement
Resting heart rate
The number of times your heart beats in one minute when a person is resting
The condition when the muscles of the body are regularly receiving the amount of oxygen they need to produce energy for movement
The amount of blood the heart can pump in a single beat
A method for measuring exercise intensity by observing the ability to talk while exercising
Target heart rate
A range in which the heart rate is fast enough to give cardiovascular benefit from exercise
very short, high intensity exercise segments that are included in a moderate exercise session
The decrease in size and strength of a skeletal muscle due to inactivity
The amount of fat compared to non-fat tissue in the body
A gradual addition of weight over the years that eventually leads to obesity
Exercise specificity principle
The muscles of the body will respond and be conditioned by the type of exercise that is performed
The increase in size of the muscle fibers in response to resistance training
Resistance training that does not involve movement
Resistance training that involves movement
The speed at which the body is able to use the energy created in the digestion of food
The process by which food is changed into energy and used by the body
Muscle adaptation principle
The ability of a muscle to increase in size and strength to adjust to resistance placed on it
The ability of a muscle to move a weight repeatedly for an extended period of time
The most amount of weight a muscle can move at a single time
The amount of resistance and duration put on a muscle so that it will become conditioned
Progressive resistance exercise
Strengthening of skeletal muscles by adding more physical strain on them over time, and letting them develop and adapt to this stress
The number of times in a row that resistance is applied to a muscle (also referred to as reps)
The amount of time in which the muscle relaxes and recovers between exercise sets
Resting metabolic rate
The amount of calories a body burns while at rest.
Force or weight that’s used to make the muscle work harder to contract
A group of repetitions
Body tissue that’s connected to and moves the bones in the body
Strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
The law of reversibility
Muscles will lose size and strength if resistance training is not continued
A harmful increase in blood pressure when a person holds their breath during resistance training
Something, such as a task, that has been modified or altered
Any time regular tasks or goals are missed
inflammation of a bursa (a fluid-filled sac)
Using a variety of exercises to work the muscles of the body in different ways
Any feelings of sadness futility or lack of motivation that keeps you from succeeding as well as you could in a task or goal
The area and surroundings in which you perform a task
Information gained from performance so that adjustments can be made
Purposes or results towards which effort is directed
The development of a consistent schedule for any task or activity
A fixed mental attitude about a task or program
An internal desire to accomplish the task or move forward toward a goal; the desire to begin and continue a task or program
Extreme muscle tiredness
An injury that’s caused by exercising without sufficient rest and recovery time
A stage in which no visible progress is made towards a goal
To restore or strengthen back to good health
An exercise strategy that allows individuals themselves to determine how difficult an activity feels
An internal monologue you have with yourself about the way you view yourself in the daily situations of life
A situation in which a person has been prevented from reaching a desired performance or achievement
An individual or group of individuals that give assistance or encouragement to you
Swelling, pain, and inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
The types of positive or negative things that you were thinking about on a regular basis
Odysseyware Health Answers
The basic structural unit of the body.
To draw together.
The fluid-like substance contained within the cell membrane, the nucleus not included.
Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic “blueprint” that determines the cell’s purpose and function.
The organelle within a cell that functions as its brain, regulating its production of protein.
A group of tissues that works together to perform a specified bodily function.
A structure that performs a specific function within a cell.
Organs working together to perform a specific bodily function.
A group of cells that have the same purpose.
low-density lipoproteins (LDL), derived from foods that are high in cholesterol and saturated fats (meat and dairy products, for example), and tend to cling together and attach themselves to the walls of the blood vessels; over time the formation builds and forms what is known as plaque
cannot spread to other tissues; they remain in the initial location, and are considered non-cancerous
refers to the entire circulatory system: heart, arteries, veins, blood vessels and capillaries; when cardiovascular refers specifically to the delivery of oxygen for the muscles, the lungs also are sometimes included in the cardiovascular system
a fat-like substance that is naturally found in the body and, in and of itself, does not pose a health risk; it is used throughout the body and, thus, carried in the bloodstream; because it is not water-soluble, cholesterol is carried in the bloodstream by protein substances which, when combined with cholesterol, form lipoproteins
structure found in the cell that contains tightly wound strands of DNA
a disease that has a prolonged course, cannot cure itself, and rarely is it completely cured; these include cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis among others, are more common among the elderly, and account for approximately 70% of all deaths as well as 70% of all health care costs
deoxyribonucleic acid is the carrier of all genetic information; the main component of chromosomes and contains all the instructions necessary for structure and function in an organism
a sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA that code for a specific product, which is usually protein
the complete set of hereditary instructions contained in the DNA
high-density lipoproteins (HDL), derived primarily from unsaturated fats (vegetables and fruits); they tend to prevent LDLs from clinging together, and also prevent LDLs from attaching to the walls of blood vessels, preventing plaque and breaking down existing formations of plaque
Human Genome Project
a global partnership to map out the human genome; the project was completed in 2003
are able to spread to other locations, invade and destroy other tissues
something that decreases a person’s risk of developing a specific illness or disease
important biological molecules with a complex folded structure
Quality of Life
quality of life is a concept that equates to an individual’s personal happiness and satisfaction; it is the degree to which you can enjoy life and all of the possibilities that life holds for you, and includes physical health and wellness, psychological well-being, social well-being, financial well-being, quality friendships and family relationships, and satisfying work and leisure activities
Air sacs within the lungs where the blood gets oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide.
A blood vessel that takes oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.
One of two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the body.
Any of the arteries, veins, or capillaries that carry blood through the body.
The basic structural unit of the body
To draw together
The fluid-like substance contained within the cell membrane, the nucleus not included
The genetic blueprint that determines the cell’s purpose and function
The organelle within a cell that functions as its brain, regulating its production of protein
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specific bodily function
A structure that performs a specific function within a cell.
Organs working together to perform a specific bodily function
A group of cells that have the same purpose
Tissue that regulates temperature, secretes lubricants, and protects the body from harmful substances
Tissue that sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), derived from foods that are high in cholesterol and saturated fats (meat and dairy products, for example), and tend to cling together and attach themselves to the walls of the blood vessels; over time the formation builds and forms what is known as plaque
Cannot spread to other tissues; they remain in the initial location, and are considered non-cancerous
Refers to the entire circulatory system: heart, arteries, veins, blood vessels and capillaries; when this refers specifically to the delivery of oxygen for the muscles, the lungs also are sometimes included in this system
A fat-like substance that is naturally found in the body and, in and of itself, does not pose a health risk; it is used throughout the body and, thus, carried in the bloodstream; because it is not water-soluble, it is carried in the bloodstream by protein substances which, when combined with this, form lipoproteins
Structure found in the cell that contains tightly wound strands of DNA
A disease that has a prolonged course, cannot cure itself, and rarely is it completely cured; these include cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis among others, are more common among the elderly, and account for approximately 70% of all deaths as well as 70% of all health care costs
A sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA that code for a specific product, which is usually protein
The complete set of hereditary instructions contained in the DNA
High-density lipoproteins (HDL), derived primarily from unsaturated fats (vegetables and fruits); they tend to prevent LDLs from clinging together, and also prevent LDLs from attaching to the walls of blood vessels, preventing plaque and breaking down existing formations of plaque
Human Genome Project
A global partnership to map out the human genome; the project was completed in 2003
Tumors that are able to spread to other locations, invade and destroy other tissues
Something that decreases a person’s risk of developing a specific illness or disease
Important biological molecules with a complex folded structure
quality of life
A concept that equates to an individual’s personal happiness and satisfaction; it is the degree to which you can enjoy life and all of the possibilities that life holds for you, and includes physical health and wellness, psychological well-being, social well-being, financial well-being, quality friendships and family relationships, and satisfying work and leisure activities
coronary artery disease
A disease of the heart where the arteries and blood vessels become clogged with fat deposits called plaque
A medical condition caused by a disruption of blood flow in the arteries going to the brain
Air sacs within the lungs where the blood gets oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide
A blood vessel that takes oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
One of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the body
Any of the arteries, veins, or capillaries that carry blood through the body
The two main airways connecting the trachea to the lungs
Tiny blood vessels that pass food and oxygen to cells and receive waste from cells
A space or room within the heart
The section of the upper respiratory system that contains the vocal cords
The section of the upper respiratory system that contains the vocal cords
The clear yellowish fluid portion of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
A cell fragment in the bloodstream which aids in the clotting of blood
Having to do with the lungs
Having to do with the entire body
The thin-walled airway connecting the pharynx with the bronchi
One of the two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood
red blood cells
Blood cells that bring oxygen to cells and take carbon dioxide away
main organ of the circulatory system
the body’s main artery
The circulation that brings carbon dioxide-filled blood to the lungs
The circulation that disperses oxygen-rich blood throughout the body
Body part that prevents food or liquids from getting into the lungs
Odysseyware Poetry Vocabulary
a repetition of the same first sound or letter in a group of words or a line of poetry
a metrical foot of three syllables, two unaccented followed by one accented, or two short followed by one long
a resemblance in the sound of words or syllables. a substitute for rhyme in which vowels are alike, but the consonants are different
what is suggested in a word in addition to the literal meaning
a poetic musical effect which uses a correspondence of consonant sounds
a metrical foot with one accented or long syllable followed by two unaccented or short syllables
The literal meaning of a word. The dictionary definition of a word
The foot used to form the basis of the meter; the foot most frequently used in a particular poem
a common metrical foot in English poetry consisting of only two syllables; consists of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented
a standard of perfection
To form pictures in the mind
a measure in poetry that consists of two unaccented syllables
an implied comparison between two different things
To use a word that imitates a sound associated with a specific object
To represent a lifeless thing or quality as if it were alive
a statement that one thing is like another
a metrical foot composed of two accented syllables
a two-syllable foot that stresses the first syllable
a condition, principle, emotion, etc. applicable to an understood by all people
The religious revolution in Europe that began by reforming Catholicism and ended by establishing Protestantism was called the:
The change from hand labor to machine labor was brought about during the period of time known as the:
A rebirth of trade and commerce in Europe was brought about by the ________.
Why was medieval life centered around the castle?
It provided protection from outside sources
Martin Luther was the leader of what movement?
What is most characteristic of Johann Gutenberg?
Inventor of the printing press
Which industry makes cloth?
Someone who is courteous is:
When did the Renaissance era end?
What increased trade with Western Europe?
Choose examples from the list below that best represent the increase of economic development in manufacturing industries in European countries and their colonies during the Industrial Revolution.
cotton manufacturing textile manufacturing iron manufacturing
Which country became a major producer of cotton?
Why did France have difficulty competing in the Industrial Revolution?
not enough coal
What was England’s primary industry during the Industrial Revolution?
What are mechanical engineers?
people who design machines
Increase in life expectancy and education are generally signs of economic progress in a society. Select effects of the Industrial Revolution in England that do not support this relationship between culture and economics.
Children were forced to work in factories. Cholera and tuberculosis ran rampant in overcrowded cities. Lack of sanitation in cities cause illness and death.
Who wrote about the living conditions in England during the Industrial Revolution?
When employers and union representatives meet to discuss conditions of employment, this is called _____.
What made the transition from one-at-a-time manufacturing to mass production possible?
_____ used coal to power the first steam engine.
Which inventions helped usher in the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
a machine that helped weavers increase volume a spinning wheel that required no human involvement the coal-powered steam engine that drained water from mines
Which reforms occurred during the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
forming of labour unions improved conditions of factories restrictions limiting number of hours women and children could work
What were some problems that occurred during the Industrial Revolution? Select all that apply.
poor sanitation overcrowding in cities long work hours low wages
Why were factories a good source of income? Select all that apply.
hey produce goods at an exceptionally fast pace. They often employed low wage earners. They employed women and children at disgracefully low wages.
How did the steam engine impact trade? Select all that apply.
in factories as a means of production helping to transport huge amounts of raw materials throughout England on trains by creating more factories to create steam engines
Three types of language
spoken words, written words, nonverbal expressions
Skills you need:
listening, speaking, reading, writing
the parts of a sentence that influence the meaning of a word
out-of-date, no longer in use
persons of the same grade, age, rank, etc.
the part of a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added
How do you increase your vocabulary?
Listen and read speakers/writers who are older
How does language change over time?
Language derives its meaning from culture
The dictionary, or literal definition of a word
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
personal feelings a word arouses
the effect the word creates
el director de la escuela
los estudios sociales
el (idioma) inglés
andar en bicicleta
andar en patineta
mandar una carta
pasar tiempo con amigos
tocar la guitarra
To protect from loss or from being used up.
A person who uses food, clothing, or anything grown by producers.
Plowing around hills to prevent erosion.
To become rotten.
Something that rots something else.
Moisture from the air that condenses and collects in small drops on cool surfaces during the night.
A person who studies organisms and their environment.
The science that deals with the relation of living things to their environments and to each other.
All the surrounding things, conditions, and influences that have to do with the growth of things.
Being worn away little by little.
No longer existing.
Plural of fungus. Plant-like organism without flowers, leaves, or green coloring matter.
A spring that sends up jets of hot water or steam.
A place where an animal or plant naturally lives or grows.
A fungus that appears on food when it is left in a warm, moist place.
Having to do with atomic energy.
A nourishing substance.
The process in green plants and algae that produces carbohydrates and oxygen by using chlorophyll.
Small organisms that live in water.
Something which makes an environment dirty or impure.
A part of the inhabitants of an area.
To keep safe, to protect.
One who makes things that are used by others.
Any supply that will meet a need.
An evergreen tree of California.
A combination of smoke and fog in the air.
Of the sun.
Moisture in the air.
An animal without a backbone
An animal that has a backbone
The last part of the three parts of an insect’s body
A long feeler on the head of an insect
The middle part of an insect’s three-part body
Invertebrate animals with soft bodies
Cold-blooded vertebrates that live on land and in water
Animals whose body heat changes with the temperature of their environment
Cold-blooded vertebrate that has scales and lays eggs
Animals who keep the same body temperature
Warm-blooded vertebrate that gives birth to live young
The change living things make to fit with their environment
Coloring that make animals look like their environment
The imitation of one organism by another
A relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit
To receive traits from parents or other family members
Plants or animals that are close to being extinct
Plants and animals that once lived on earth but all of their kind have died
The natural environment where a plant or animal lives
To protect from loss or from being used up
block and tackle
A set of two or more pulleys (the blocks) with ropes (the tackles) used to move objects.
Made up of a number of parts.
The ability to do work.
A pushing or pulling to move an object.
A rubbing of one thing against another.
The support on which a lever turns or is supported in moving or lifting something.
The natural force that causes objects to move or tend to move toward the center of the earth.
A sloping, flat surface.
Energy of motion.
A bar for raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down at the other end.
What one is carrying.
A device for applying power.
Amount of slope.
A wheel with a grooved rim in which a rope can run, and so lift weights.
A sloping way connecting two different levels.
An inclined plane wrapped around in a spiral.
The sloping ridge that winds around a screw.
Two inclined planes joined together to form a sharp edge.
wheel and axle
A wheel with the shaft on which it turns.
A force moving an object.
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