MB Topic 1 & Bio 1202 test 2 Chapter 26 Answers

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Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____.
Bacteria and Archaea
In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom _____.
Monera
A human is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.
Eukarya … Animalia
A rose bush is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.
Eukarya … Plantae
In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes?
protista
In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae?
They are sedentary.
There is(are) _____ eukaryotic domain(s).
one
The scientific discipline concerned with naming organisms is called
taxonomy
The various taxonomic levels (viz, genera, classes, etc.) of the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the basis of
their inclusiveness
Which of these illustrates the correct representation of the binomial scientific name for the African lion?
Panthera leo (both are italicized)
The correct sequence, from the most to the least comprehensive, of the taxonomic levels listed here is
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
The common housefly belongs to all of the following taxa. Assuming you had access to textbooks or other scientific literature, knowing which of the following should provide you with the most specific information about the common housefly?
genus Musca
class Hexapoda
order Diptera
family Muscidae
phylum Arthropoda
genus Musca
The best classification system is that which most closely
reflects evolutionary history
Which of the following pairs are the best examples of homologous structures?
owl wing and hornet wing
bat forelimb and bird wing
porcupine quill and cactus spine
bat wing and human hand
Australian mole and North American mole
bat wing and human hand
Generally, within a lineage, the largest number of shared derived characters should be found among two organisms that are members of the same
familly
Shared derived characters are most likely to be found in taxa that are
monophyletic.
polyphyletic.
paraphyletic.
monophyletic
The term that is most appropriately associated with clade is
monophyletic
If birds are excluded from the class Reptilia, the term that consequently describes the class Reptilia is
paraphyletic
If the eukaryotic condition arose, independently, several different times during evolutionary history, and if ancestors of these different lineages are extant and are classified in the domain Eukarya, then the domain Eukarya would be
polyphyletic
When using a cladistic approach to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification?
shared derived characters
The four-chambered hearts of birds and the four-chambered hearts of mammals evolved independently of each other. If one were unaware of this independence, then one might logically conclude that
the common ancestor of birds and mammals had a four-chambered heart.
Phylogenetic hypotheses (such as those represented by phylogenetic trees) are strongest when
they are supported by more than one kind of evidence, such as when fossil evidence corroborates molecular evidence.
Which kind of DNA should provide the best molecular clock for gauging the evolutionary relatedness of several species whose common ancestor became extinct billions of years ago?
that coding for ribosomal RNA
Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology?
Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.
Which process hinders clarification of the deepest branchings in a phylogenetic tree that depicts the origins of the three domains?
horizontal gene transfer
What kind of evidence has recently made it necessary to assign the prokaryotes to either of two different domains, rather than assigning all prokaryotes to the same kingdom?
molecular
Members of which kingdom have cell walls and are all heterotrophic?
fungi
To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree,
choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology.

 

Bio 1202 test 2 Chapter 26

Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____.

-Bacteria and Archaea
-Bacteria and Eukarya
-Bacteria and Protista
-Bacteria
-Protista and Archaea

-Bacteria and Archaea

In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom _____.

-Protista
-Animalia
-Fungi
-Plantae
-Monera

-Monera

A human is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.

-Eukarya … Fungi
-Eukarya … Protista
-Eukarya … Plantae
-Eukarya … Animalia
-Bacteria … Archaea

-Eukarya … Animalia

A rose bush is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____.

-Eukarya … Fungi
-Eukarya … Protista
-Eukarya … Plantae
-Eukarya … Animalia
-Bacteria … Archaea

-Eukarya … Plantae

In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes?

-Fungi
-Protista
-Plantae
-Animalia
-Monera

-Protista

In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae?

-They are sedentary.
-They are heterotrophs.
-They lack cell walls.
-They are unicellular.
-They are autotrophs.

-They are sedentary.

There is(are) _____ eukaryotic domain(s).

-one
-two
-three
-four
-five

-one

If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?

-A and B
-A and C
-B and D
-C and F
-D and F

-D and F

Which of the following is (are) problematic when the goal is to construct phylogenies that accurately reflect evolutionary history?

-polyphyletic taxa
-monophyletic taxa
-polyphyletic taxa and monophyletic taxa
-paraphyletic taxa
-polyphyletic taxa and paraphyletic taxa
-All of the choices are correct.

-polyphyletic taxa and paraphyletic taxa

Animals that possess homologous structures probably _____.

-evolved from the same ancestor
-have increased genetic diversity
-are not related
-are the result of convergent evolution
-are the result of similar environmental pressures in different evolutionary lineages

-evolved from the same ancestor

Systematists have used a wide variety of traits to reconstruct the phylogenies of particular groups of organisms. Which one of the following traits produces a good estimate of phylogeny?

-molecular traits
-behavioral traits
-biochemical traits
-gross morphological traits
-all of the above traits combined

-all of the above traits combined

The best classification system is that which most closely

-conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices.
-unites organisms that possess similar morphologies.
-reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes.
-reflects evolutionary history.

-reflects evolutionary history.

Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to

-possession of analogous structures.
-sexual selection.
-possession of shared primitive characters.
-inheritance of shared derived characters.
-inheritance of acquired characteristics.

-possession of analogous structures.

Which mutation should least require realignment of homologous regions of a gene that is common to several related species?

-one-base substitution
-one-base deletion
-four-base insertion
-three-base insertion
-three-base deletion

-one-base substitution

What process actually increases the number of genes in an organism’s genome?

-gene duplication
-cladistics
-mutation
-parsimony
-independent assortment

-gene duplication

Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of sequence homology?

-Dogs and wolves belong to the same order.
-Dogs and wolves are both members of the order Carnivora.
-Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.
-Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies.

-Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.

The reason that paralogous genes can diverge from each other within the same gene pool, whereas orthologous genes diverge only after gene pools are isolated from each other, is that

-having an extra copy of a gene permits modifications to the copy without loss of the original gene product.
-having multiple copies of genes is essential for the occurrence of sympatric speciation in the wild.
-polyploidy is a necessary precondition for the occurrence of sympatric speciation in the wild.
-paralogous genes can occur only in diploid species; thus, they are absent from most prokaryotes.

-having an extra copy of a gene permits modifications to the copy without loss of the original gene product.

What kind of evidence has recently made it necessary to assign the prokaryotes to either of two different domains, rather than assigning all prokaryotes to the same kingdom?

-anatomical
-ecological
-molecular
-nutritional
-behavioral

-molecular

What important criterion was used in the late 1960s to distinguish between the three multicellular eukaryotic kingdoms of the five-kingdom classification system?

-the features of their embryos
-the nutritional modes they employ
-the geological stratum in which fossils first appear
-the biogeographic province where each first appears
-the number of cells present in individual organisms

-the nutritional modes they employ

To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree,

-choose the tree that assumes all evolutionary changes are equally probable.
-choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as possible.
-choose the tree with the fewest branch points.
-choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, in either DNA sequences or morphology.
-base phylogenetic trees only on the fossil record, as this provides the simplest explanation for evolution.

-choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, in either DNA sequences or morphology.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of related groups of organisms. Organisms are grouped into taxa based on homologous characteristics, shared traits that result from common ancestry. Which statement is true?

-Ancestral traits are always simpler than derived traits.
-The term “monophyletic” refers to a taxon that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
-Homologous structures look the same and serve the same function, but they differ in evolutionary origin and structure.

-The term “monophyletic” refers to a taxon that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.

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