Mastering A&P Lymphatic & Immune – HW Questions and Answers

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Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?

bone marrow and thymus
appendix and spleen
lymph nodes and tonsils
spleen and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

Which of the following areas in a secondary lymphoid organ allows intimate contact between blood and the lymphocytes?

red pulp of the spleen
germinal centers of the lymph nodes
Hassall’s corpuscles of the thymus
white pulp of the spleen

white pulp of the spleen

Where in the lymph node do the T cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?

medullary cords in the medulla
lymphoid follicles of the outer cortex
germinal centers of the cortex
deep in the cortex

deep in the cortex

Collections of lymphoid tissues, called MALT, are strategically placed throughout the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. Which one of these is located at the end of the small intestine?

appendix
Peyer’s patches
tonsils

Peyer’s patches

There is a decrease in our ability to fight infection as we age. Which lymphoid organ may have a role in this decline?

thymus
spleen
lymph nodes

thymus

What is the function of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

A) increase permeability
B) enforce a one way flow from lymphatic system into capillary bed
C) connect to blood capillaries
D) reduce pressure in the lymphatic capillary

A) increase permeability

Once collected, lymph ultimately drains into __________.

the liver for detoxification
lymph nodes
arterial circulation
venous circulation

venous circulation
Which of these lymphoid organs is part of a collection of tissues called the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and removes pathogens entering the pharynx (throat)?
Tonsils
Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life?
Thymus

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

splenic sinusoids
red pulp
splenic cords
white pulp

white pulp

Which lymphoid organ(s) serve(s) as the site where B lymphocytes become immunocompetent B cells?

thyroid gland
tonsils
red bone marrow
thymus gland

red bone marrow

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can not be performed by bone marrow?

A) immune surveillance
B) erythropoiesis
C) removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
D) storage of platelets

C) removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

They filter lymph.
They return lymph to circulation.
They produce red blood cells.
They produce lymph.

They filter lymph.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

A) manual compression of the affected area
B) movements of the affected area
C) treatments that promote growth of lymphatic vessels
D) bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

D) bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

A) anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
B) inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
C) increasing pressure in the interstitial space
D) increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

D) increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.

dendritic cells
B cells
macrophages
None of the listed responses is correct.

macrophages

Which lymphoid organ(s) serve(s) in immune surveillance and blood cell recycling?

the lymph nodes
the thymus
the tonsils
the spleen

the spleen

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
B) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.
C) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
D) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

A) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?
Thoracic duct
Lymphatic vessels
Return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?
Bone marrow and thymus
Which of the following areas in a secondary lymphoid organ allows intimate contact between blood and the lymphocytes?
White pulp of the spleen
Where in the lymph node do the T cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?
Deep in the cortex
Collections of lymphoid tissues, called MALT, are strategically placed throughout the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. Which one of these is located at the end of the small intestine?
Peyer’s patches
There is a decrease in our ability to fight infection as we age. Which lymphoid organ may have a role in this decline?
Thymus
What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?
Produce plasma cells that secrete anitbodies
What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?
Capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
What constitutes the body’s first line of defense against disease?
Intact skin and mucous membranes
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Natural Killer (NK) cells?
NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer calls by a specific antigen on their cell membrane
Which of the following innate internal defenses work by interfering with viral replication?
Interferons
How do phagocytes recognize foreign cells or bacteria?
The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells
Which of the innate defense mechanisms can lyse bacteria and mark cells for phagocytosis?
Complement proteins
Which of the following can act as opsonins on bacteria, thus enhancing phagocytosis?
Antibodies and complement proteins can act as opsonins on bacteria
With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?
Opsonins
Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?
Edema (swelling)
What is the main event of chemotaxis?
Neutrophils and other WBC’s migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of the injury
How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?
Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil
Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?
Macrophages
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by__________.
Natural killer cells
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. The phenomenon is termed _______.
Opsonization

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