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How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells alike? How do they differ?
Answer: Eukaryotes are the majority of living things. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the two main categories of cells. Bacteria and Archaea are single-celled organisms belonging to Prokaryota (pro = before; karyon – nuc leu in Latin) and Eukarya (eu = true).
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the same because they both have cell membranes, cytoplasm and contain DNA. They are different because their DNA is found in different places of the cell. Prokaryotic cells store their DNA in the nucleus. Since eukaryotic cells have no nucleus, their DNA is stored in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have two similarities. They are both protected by a cell membrane, which serves as the barrier that protects the cell from the external environment, and they have DNA that carries the cell’s genetic information. However, these cells differ in terms of their structure. Eukaryotic cells, which are generally more prominent than prokaryotic cells, have DNA located inside the nucleus. On the other hand, prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus, so their genetic material is found in the cytoplasm.
A prokaryote is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) animal that lacks a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. This is going to be contrasted with eukaryotes shortly. The nucleoid is a dark area in the middle of the cell where prokaryotic DNA may be found.
Bacteria do not have an outer membrane and, unlike Archaea and eukaryotes, possess a peptidoglycan cell wall made of sugars and amino acids (Figure 1). The cell wall serves as an additional level of protection, keeps the cell’s form, and prevents dehydration. The capsule allows the cell to bind to surfaces in its surroundings. Flagella are found on some prokaryotes. Flagella are utilized for movement, whereas most pili are used for genetic transmission during conjugation.
The connection between form and function is evident at all levels in nature, including the cell level, and it will become apparent as we look at eukaryotic cells. The notion that “form follows function” can be found in many situations. It implies that, in general, one may infer the purpose of a structure by looking at its form since they are matched. Birds and fish have streamlined bodies that allow them to move swiftly through the medium on which they dwell, whether air or water.
A eukaryotic cell is one that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs, called organelles, which have specialized functions. Eukaryotes are named after the presence of the membrane-bound nucleus in these cells; it denotes the “true kernel.” “Organelle” refers to a small organ, and like your body’s organs, organelles have unique cellular responsibilities.