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This Independent Study course provides a general introduction to hazardous materials and consists of five units. The course does not meet Hazardous Materials response requirements identified in HAZWOPER standard.
The course covers topics such as Federal, State, Tribal, and local government’s roles in reducing hazardous materials risks, two major hazardous materials identification systems, possible terrorist targets of opportunities in the use of toxic industrial chemicals as Weapons of Mass Destruction, locations where hazardous materials are commonly found and how to determine their potential health effects, how hazardous materials enter the body and contaminate the environment, and what communities and individuals can do to protect themselves during a hazardous materials release.
The five units cover Health and Environmental Regulations, Hazardous Materials Identification Systems, Identifying Hazardous Materials, Hazardous Materials and Human Health, and Preparing for Hazardous Materials Incidents.
FEMA IS-5A: An Introduction to Hazardous Materials Answers
Here is the table with answers for FEMA IS-5A: An Introduction to Hazardous Materials.
Sensory clues to the possible presence of hazardous materials in water include:
All of these
When treating a household incident involving exposure to a poison, your most reliable source of advice and expertise is:
The product’s label
Which of the following correctly identifies the four ‘routes of entry’ for toxic substances into the body:
Absorption, injection, ingestion, inhalation
The code OXY in the bottom white quadrant of a label conforming to NFPA 704 indicates that:
The material can easily release oxygen to create or worsen a fire or explosion hazard
The chemical agent or hazardous material that interferes with the body’s ability to transfer oxygen to the cells is:
Which Federal law is intended to assure, so far as possible, safe working conditions?
The Occupational Safety and Health Act
A toxic accident occurs in your neighborhood. Several adults, teenagers, and small children are present. Which group, if any, would likely be most severely affected?
The small children would be most severely affected
What is the recommended minimum number of personnel needed to manage a hazardous materials incident safely?
Decontamination is needed in order to:
Remove contaminants from people and equipment
The five phases of a hazardous material’s life does not include production, transportation, storage, elimination, and disposal.
The Federal agency primarily responsible for protecting our environment from contamination by hazardous materials releases is:
The Environmental Protection Agency
If you are caught outdoors in the vicinity of a hazardous materials incident, you should try to move away from the release:
Upstream, uphill, and upwind
Under EPCRA, Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) are charged with the responsibility to:
Develop an emergency plan to respond to hazardous materials incidents
It is difficult and sometimes impossible to purify contaminated groundwater.
Under what circumstances are judges likely to take immediate action to halt pollution before a violation of the law has been proven in court?
In extreme cases when the potential damage is clear and irreparable
Existing landfills are generally considered sufficient to serve as the sole means of disposing of the Nation’s waste for the foreseeable future.
If you encounter a suspicious substance, you should:
Notify the appropriate authority
A person whose skin is coated with a toxic substance gives his/her contaminated clothing to another individual. This likely will result in what is called:
Results of Commodity Flow Surveys can be obtained from:
The presence of hazardous materials can always be detected by the sense of smell.
A person works every day with a toxic substance, but does not take protective measures. The individual will experience what type of exposure?
The EPCRA grants citizens the right to obtain information on hazardous materials in their community.
An industry’s smokestack is an example of what type of source?
The local role in reducing public risks from hazardous materials includes:
All of these
One benefit of a sound community plan to deal with a hazardous materials emergency is:
Roles and responsibilities are defined
Formal mutual aid agreements with surrounding jurisdictions are seldom if ever needed, since everyone is ready to pitch in when an incident occurs.
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) includes information on:
Health effects and physical properties of a specific chemical
The Federal agency responsible for regulating interstate shipments of hazardous materials is:
Department of Transportation
A chemical that, in relatively small amounts, produces injury when it comes in contact with skin tissue is known as:
Under existing laws, States do not have broad authority to control how hazardous materials are stored, used, transported, and disposed of within their borders.
The body has very efficient internal defenses which can remove any quantity of an unwanted substance.
The success of good site operations and the ability of employees to respond during emergencies is:
Initial and annual refresher training
A primary purpose of conducting a hazardous materials exercise is to find out:
Whether planned procedures work
The primary hazard associated with most flammable liquids is:
Fire or explosion
In-place sheltering is never an appropriate option in an accident involving hazardous materials.
Besides the LEPC, what local agencies may maintain specific information on industries in your community that use, store, or generate EHS-listed hazardous materials?
The local fire department
In the NFPA 704 labeling system, a rating of 4 in any quadrant corresponds to:
The highest degree of hazard
The key components of a complete local plan include a basic plan, supporting annexes, and implementing procedures. The supporting annexes typically include:
Conceptual framework for emergency operations
By reading the placard on a tanker bearing hazardous materials, you can find out:
The hazard class of the substance being carried
The tendency of chemicals to become more concentrated as they move up the food chain is known as:
Health affects resulting from contact with a hazardous substance over a long period of time is called:
You have just learned that a chemical you work with is a mutagen. What effect does this chemical have?
Causes a permanent change in the genetic material (DNA)
Which Federal agency provides training, resource information and technical assistance to States to help them prepare for hazardous materials emergencies?
The Federal Emergency Management Agency
Standard approaches to waste disposal are generally regulated and managed by the:
The Federal law designed to regulate hazardous waste ‘from cradle to grave’ is:
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
The basic approaches to cleaning contaminated soil include:
Containment, off-site containment, on- or off-site treatment, or disposal
What is the primary purpose of a Hazardous Materials Response Team?
To provide the skills, knowledge, and technical equipment needed to offensively handle hazardous materials incidents
The analysis of a situation to determine the level of risk inherent in that situation is called:
Once approved, an Emergency Operations Plan should never be revised, since this would create potential confusion in responding agencies.
Permissible exposure limits are levels of exposures mandated by:
Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (1980)
created a billion dollar trust fund to pay for Federal and State response actions when hazardous materials pose or may pose a threat to human health or the environment
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)
expanded and revised CERCLA
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
Title III of SARA; subjects +300 hazardous substances to reporting to local, State, and Federal agencies; requires local governments to create emergency plans
The National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)
the basis for Federal action to minimize pollution damage from discharges of oil or hazardous substances; Federal agencies assist in the development and evaluation of national, regional, and local oil and hazardous substance pollution contingency plans
National Response Team (NRT)
publish guidance on emergency response planning and stand ready to assist States in the event of a major chemical emergency
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Deal with inland water
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)
Deal with coastal water
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)
establishes a Federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste, which includes certain materials held to pose a potential threat to public health and safety when they are discarded; “cradle to grave management of hazardous waste”;
How did the RCRA work?
Developed cleanup standards, tracks hazardous waste shipments and developed a permit system for waste disposal sites
DOT’s Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation (OHMT) issues regulations dealing with the shipping and packaging of hazardous materials, including how they are classified and labeled.
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
issues basic safety and health standards, assigns Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) employees to inspect workplaces, and forces industry to reduce or eliminate job hazards by imposing fines for identified violations
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) (1989)
a health and safety standard to ensure the safety of workers performing hazardous waste cleanup or response actions
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (1976)
chemical producers are required to research the effects of new chemicals and notify EPA before they are manufactured; EPA has the authority to ban or restrict chemical uses if there is sufficient evidence that the substance poses an “unreasonable risk.”
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (1910)
requires regulation of pesticides; amended in 1972 to require testing for short-term and long-term toxic effects prior to registration
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) (1938)
requires the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to enforce residue limits by monitoring and seizing foods whose residues are in excess of standards.
Clean Air Act (CAA) (1970)
the basic Federal law for controlling toxic air pollution; requires EPA to keep an up-to-date list of industrial pollutants that are hazardous to human health, and set an emission standard for each “with an ample margin of safety;” requires EPA to review public health standards for six major air pollutants every 5 years; can be based only upon a consideration of public health
Clean Water Act (CWA) (1972)
set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways; aims to make surface waters swimmable and fishable
Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
enacted to protect public water supplies from contamination by mandating water testing, denying Federal funds to projects that threaten critical water supplies, and requiring States to submit plans to protect public wells from contamination; has a “Right to Know” provision in cases where contaminants exceed Maximum Concentration Levels (MCLs)
Section I of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
requires that the governor of each State designate a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC)
State Emergency Response Commission (SERC)
designates local emergency planning districts and appoints Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) within districts
Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs)
responsible for developing and maintaining a local emergency response plan that will ensure a quick and effective response to a chemical emergency.
Section II of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
requires an industry to notify the LEPC, the State, and the National Response Center if there is a release of a listed hazardous substance that exceeds a certain quantity
Section III of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
grants citizens the right to obtain information on hazardous materials in their community; requires facilities to submit either a form called a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or lists of certain hazardous chemicals on sites in amounts over threshold quantities to the LEPC, the SERC, and the local fire department
Section IV of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
requires hazardous materials facilities to inform the public about routine, day-to-day releases of chemicals
Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (CAER)
The Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA)’s voluntary, industry-wide program that encourages plant managers to listen to community concerns, participate in planning, and explain their plant’s operations and policies
What happens when a chemical exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ)?
One must notify the National Response Center, the LEPC, and the SERC of a release
When can a lawsuit be brought against polluters?
Under both Federal and State environmental laws, you have the right to file a suit for an injunction (halt) to pollution if you can show that the defendant is in violation of the State law, or (in some States) if it is creating an imminent danger
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
devised a voluntary marking system to alert firefighters to the characteristics of hazardous materials stored in stationary tanks and facilities
standardized system, which uses numbers and colors on a sign to indicate the basic hazards of a specific material being stored in large containers
Shape of NFPA
Color: Blue, Purpose: Health Hazards
Color: Red, Purpose: Fire Hazard
Color: Yellow, Purpose: Reactivity/Explosiveness
Color: White, Purpose: Special Hazards
Different Special Hazards
OXY (oxidizer), W (reacts with water to expel a hazardous or flammable gas), Radioactive
Emergency Response Guidebook
list of interpretations of North American (NA) and United Nations (UN) ID numbers found on cargo tanks and rail cars; a guide to aid “first responders” in quickly identifying the specific or generic hazards of the material(s) involved in the incident, and protecting themselves and the general public during the initial response phase of the incident.
What is a hazardous substance under the HMTA?
a substance which “poses an unreasonable risk to public health and safety”
How many numbers are in an NA or UN code?
Hazard Class 1
explosives and blasting agents, even if not designed to explode
Hazard Class 2
gases – includes flammables, non-flammable non-toxic; and toxic, and corrosive gases
Hazard Class 3
Hazard Class 4
Flammable solids, spontaneously combustible materials, and dangerous when wet materials
Hazard Class 5
Oxidizers and organic peroxide
Hazard Class 6
Toxic materials and infectious substances
Hazard Class 7
Hazard Class 8
Hazard Class 9
What do shipping documents contain?
contain the proper shipping name, the hazard class or division of the material(s), ID number and, where appropriate, the Packing Group number
Initial Response Phase
Period following arrival at the scene of an incident during which the presence and or identification of goods is confirmed, protective actions and the area securing is initiated and qualified personnel are requested
Who uses the ERG?
OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.120 and EPA, 40 CFR Part 311 require first responders to be trained in using the ERG
What are the most frequent types of transportation accidents?
(1) Flammable and combustible liquids and (2) corrosives
When must placards be used?
When the aggregate weight of the hazardous materials exceeds 1001 pounds or when they are a Table 1 material
Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs)
a variety of toxic chemicals used by industry in various processes, created by industry for various purposes, or released to the soil, to water, or to the air by industry as byproducts of either.
Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD)
a weapon that can kill or harm large numbers of people as well as destroy or damage a large physical area
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)
keeps data concerning rail traffic
phosgene (CG) and chlorine (CL)
lung-damaging, choking agents
Chemical Warfare Agents
low-molecular weight synthetic compounds, which are fast acting and sometimes lethal even at low levels
Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanogen Chloride
blood agents, interfere with oxygen utilization;
Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)
contains data on shipments by domestic establishments in manufacturing, wholesale, mining, and selected other industries; maintained by LEPCs
Hazard Vulnerability Assessments
systematic approaches to identifying hazards or risks that are most likely to have an impact on a healthcare facility and the surrounding community
Safety Data Sheet (SDS)
sheet that provides information on the safe use of and hazards of chemicals, as well as emergency steps to take in the event chemicals are splashed, sprayed, or ingested
The Identity of the Substance (I)
If single substance: chemical and common names must be listed. If a wholly tested mixture: chemical and common names which create the hazard must be listed. If an untested mixture: hazardous ingredients which are 1% or greater of the mixture must be stated. If a carcinogen: contents higher than 0.1% must be stated
Physical and Chemical Characteristics (III, IV, VI)
state of matter, vapor pressure, flash point, behavior, odor, color, miscellaneous
Physical Hazards (IV, V)
potential for fire, explosions, or reactions, and the conditions under which they may occur; recommended extinguishing media; stability
Health Hazards (VI)
signs and symptoms of exposure; medical conditions which are generally recognized as being aggravated by exposure to the material
Routes of Entry (VI)
potential routes of entry into the body for a hazardous substance
Permissible Exposure Limits (II)
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), Threshold Limit Value (TLV), and any other exposure limit recommended by the manufacturer, distributor, or employer
How is maximum exposure measured?
maximum exposure a worker should have to the substance during an 8-hour working day, as expressed in parts per million (ppm) in air
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
a mandated exposure level set by OSHA; measures concentration of substance
Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
advisory guidelines that are revised yearly; airborne concentrations of hazardous substances
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
organization that sets TLVs
Carcinogens (II, VII)
must be listed on SDS’ if reported in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens or has been found to be a potential carcinogen by OSHA or the International Agency for Research on Cancer
any generally applicable precautions for safe handling and use of the product which are known to the preparer of the SDS, including appropriate hygienic practices, protective measures during repair and maintenance of contaminated equipment, and procedures for spills and leaks of the material
Control Measures (IX)
any generally applicable control measures which are known to the preparer of the SDS, such as appropriate engineering controls, work practices, or personal protective equipment (PPE) that is needed to safely handle the material
First Aid Procedures (VI)
procedures that are to be used on a person who is exposed to the product
Date of Preparation
the date that the SDS was prepared, and the date that the information was last updated
name, address, and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer or responsible party
Which law regulates what sites?
Inactive sites are ranked for cleanup under Federal Superfund legislation or State cleanup programs; Active sites are regulated under the RCRA
What sites are eligible for Superfund?
dangerous sites ranked under the National Priorities List (NPL); less than 1% of all hazardous waste sites are included on the NPL
Emergency Response and Remedial Information System (ERRIS)
a list of waste sites accruing more than 22,000 hazardous waste sites
(1) air-stripping/aeration, (2) activated carbon, (3) chemical precipitation
substances that release pressure, gas, and heat suddenly when they are subjected to shock, heat, or high pressure
Flammables and combustibles
substances that are easy to ignite
materials that can cause injury or death when they enter the bodies of living things
materials that release harmful radiation
a specific route a chemical might travel from a source to a receptor
a chemical that, in relatively small amounts, produces injury when it comes in contact with susceptible tissue
High levels of exposure over a short period
exposure to a hazardous substance over a long period of time
a permanent change in the genetic material (DNA), which may be passed along to later generations.
an increased risk that a developing embryo will have physical defects
chemicals which are not corrosive, but which cause a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
chemicals that cause visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact
gases or vapors that dilute or displace oxygen normally in the atmosphere
chemicals that prevent the cells from taking up or transferring oxygen in the body or to the tissues
Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
CNS Depressants slow down the operations of the brain and the body; can result in death
dramatically affect specific organ systems
chemicals that cause a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical
(1) excretion, (2) breathing and sweating
studies that use data on how toxic substances affect human populations
the quantity of the compound received by the subject
the dose which kills 50% of the exposed population
the dose which incapacitates 50% of the exposed population
Ct (Concentration time)
a measure of exposure to a vapor or aerosol
the Ct which will kill 50% of the exposed population
the Ct which will incapacitate 50% of the exposed population
NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level)
the substance has no observable effect on the animal
A specific source of pollution that can be identified
Diffuse sources of pollution such as urban runoff or automobile exhaust
dissolves readily in water
move rapidly in the ground because they can be dissolved by groundwater
to attach to particle surfaces
resist breakdown in the environment
the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means
interaction of two or more substances that results in a greater effect than when the substances are taken alone
the ability of one or more chemicals to increase the toxicity of another chemical to cause greater harm than the total effects of the two expected reactions
accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain
means by which contaminants move as a mass along the general flow of the medium
a medium of transportation for contaminants
the altitude to which a pollutant is mixed
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth’s surface
water moving through soil and rock, is a common route for chemical movement
includes oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, or any above ground water source
medium which can be contaminated through dumping, spills, and other sources
the individual tasked with directing all response and supporting operations in accordance with procedures specified in State or local ordinances and the local Emergency Operations Plan
self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
Respirator with independent air supply used by fire fighters to enter toxic and otherwise dangerous atmospheres; lasts 30-45 minutes
area immediately surrounding a hazmat incident; extends far enough to prevent adverse effects outside the zone
Hazardous Materials Response Teams (HMRTs)
a specialized emergency response team formed to provide the particular skills, knowledge, and technical equipment needed to handle hazardous materials incidents
Regional Response Teams (RRTs)
teams assembled to provide advice and support for transportation or fixed facility incidents that surpass the capability of State and local governments
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC)
a service organization that provides information for responders to chemical or hazardous materials emergencies; does not tell Incident Commander what to do
Chlorine Emergency Plan (CHLOREP)
an organization which provides telephone instruction to on-scene personnel in the United States and Canada, and, if necessary, can notify the nearest producer of chlorine and request that a trained team be dispatched
National Agricultural Chemicals Association (NACA)
identifies the Pesticides Safety Team (PST), which provides advice for incidents involving pesticides and will dispatch a response team to the site if one is needed
against the direction that the wind is blowing
How far away from a danger area should one be?
At least 10 city blocks/ half a mile
Leave immediately; do not call police unless if you genuinely need it
seal entry routes, turn off ventilation, remain in reduced toxicity areas, take shallow breaths through a cloth or towel if vapors enter a building
Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (ICP)
a guide developed by the NRT; provides a way to consolidate into one functional emergency response plan the multiple plans that a facility may have prepared to comply with various regulations; created because of a 1993 report from the NRT to Congress
After-Action Report (AAR)
a retrospective analysis on a given sequence of goal-oriented actions previously undertaken
Hazard Communication Program (HCP)
a plan to increase awareness of hazardous chemicals used in the workplace so that they can recognize known and potential hazards and take proactive measures to minimize harm to themselves, others, and the environment.