Biology Lab Manual Assignment Questions and Answers

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Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Phosphate
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Ribose
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Deoxyribose
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Purine
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Pyrimidine
Components of nucleotidesPart complete
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
All of the genetic material in all living organisms is made from these basic building blocks of nucleotides.

 

Components of nucleotides Video-Guide

Which one of these is an amino group?
A; This is an amino group, NH2.
Which of these is a phosphate group?
B; Of the choices, this is the only one that contains phosphorus.
Which of these is a hydroxyl group?
D; This is a hydroxyl group.
Which of these is a carboxyl group?
F; This is a carboxyl group.
Which of these functional groups is characteristic of alcohol?
D; Hydroxyl groups are characteristic of alcohol.
Which of the functional groups behaves as a base?
A; The electronegativity of nitrogen means that amino groups tend to pick up hydrogen ions.
Which of these groups is characteristic of thiols?
E; Thiols are characterized by the presence of a sulfhydryl group.
Which of these groups plays a major role in energy transfer?
B; Phosphate groups are a component of ATP.
Which of these is a carbonyl group?
C; This is a carbonyl group.
Which of these functional groups is characteristic of a ketone?
C; A carbonyl group in the middle of a carbon skeleton characterizes ketones.
Which of functional groups listed below behaves as an acid?
F; By donating hydrogen ions, carboxyl groups act as an acid.
What name is given to the process seen in this animation?
dehydration synthesis
Select the statement that is incorrect.
All carbohydrates have the general formula Cn(H2O)n.
Match the words in the left-hand column with the appropriate blank in the sentences in the right-hand column.
1. A simple sugar is composed of equal parts carbon and water, which gave rise to the general name of any sugar as a [carbohydrate].
2. Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a [disaccharide], because it can be split into two monosaccharides.
3. A [monosaccharide] cannot be hydrolyzed any further.
4. A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed is a [polysaccharide].
Glycogen is _____.
a polysaccharide found in animals
(Animals store energy in the form of glycogen)
glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____.
maltose + water … dehydration synthesis
(Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis.)
Which of these is a source of lactose?
milk
(Lactose is the sugar found in milk.)
Which of these is a polysaccharide?
cellulose
(Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers.)
_____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth.
Cellulose
(Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth.)
Which of these is NOT a lipid?
RNA
(RNA is a nucleic acid)
This figure is an example of a(n) _____.
saturated fat
(The fatty acid tails lack double bonds.)
Which of these is a phospholipid?
Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids.
Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats?
Olive Oil
(Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats.)
A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____.
as a component of animal cell membranes
(Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes.)
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Basic
[Arginine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar
Neutral Nonpolar
[Alanine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar
Neutral Polar
[Glutamine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar
Neutral Polar
[Asparagine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Basic
[Lysine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Polar
[Serine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Nonpolar
[Phenylanlanine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Nonpolar
[Methionine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Nonpolar
[Proline]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Acidic
[Glutamic Acid]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Polar
[Tyrosine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Polar
[Threonine]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Nonpolar
[Tryptophan]
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
Neutral Nonpolar
[Valine]
Complete the following vocabulary exercise relating to the level of structure in proteins.
1. Tertiary structure is achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side-chain R groups of amino acids.
2. Secondary structure describes the alpha-helices and beta-sheets that are formed by hydrogen bonding between backbone atoms located near each other in the polypeptide chain.
3. Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
4. Quaternary structure is the result of two or more protein subunits assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex.
Sort the images according to the level of structure in the proteins shown.
The tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins—how they fold into their overall three-dimensional shapes, and how different protein subunits come together to interact—both ultimately depend on the primary structure, the sequence of amino acids in the proteins. A different sequence of amino acids will lead to different secondary structures and a different shape of the overall protein.

 

Mastering Biology – Alfred Diggs: Chapter 5 Answers

What is another name for a condensation reaction?

dehydration

Condensation, also called dehydration, refers to the removal of a water molecule during the linking of monomers.

What is the name of the process during which a bond between two monomers is broken?

hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is the opposite of a condensation reaction. During hydrolysis, a water molecule is used up in the breaking of a bond between two monomers. An H is added to one monomer, and an OH is added to the other.

Carbohydrate polymers are made up of ______ monomers.
simple sugar
Nucleic acid polymers are made up of ______ monomers.
nucleotide
Protein polymers are made up of ______ monomers.
amino acid

Select the statement that is incorrect.

a. Complex sugars are carbohydrates.
b. All carbohydrates have the general formula Cn(H2O)n.
c. Simple sugars are carbohydrates.
d. Simple sugars contain only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms.

b

This formula only applies to simple sugars, which are equal parts carbon and water. Complex sugars, which do not have this general formula, are also carbohydrates.

Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a ________, because it can be split into two monosaccharides.
disaccharide
A carbohydrate that yields many ________ when hydrolyzed is a polysaccharide .
monosaccharides
A simple sugar is composed of equal parts carbon and water, which gave rise to the general name of any sugar as a ________ .
carbohydrate
A _________ cannot be hydrolyzed any further.
monosaccharide

Which of these is NOT a lipid?

a. RNA
b. cholesterol
c. wax
d. steroids
e. phospholipid

a

saturated fat

The fatty acid tails lack double bonds.

This figure is an example of a(n) _____.

b

Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids.

Which of these is a phospholipid?
Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats?

olive oil

Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats.

A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____.
as a component of animal cell membranes
How many fatty acids are in a phospholipid?

2

Two fatty acids are attached to the glycerol and make up the tails of the phospholipid.

What functional feature(s) does the phosphate group contribute to the structure of a phospholipid?
place to attach another small charged molecule
negative charge to interact with waterThe phosphate attaches to the glycerol and provides a place for another small molecule to attach to the phospholipid. The phosphate has a charge, so it interacts with polar water molecules.
What holds phospholipids together in a bilayer formation?

hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with water

The hydrophobic tails interact with each other and are repelled by water, while the heads are hydrophilic and are attracted to water. This dual nature causes groups of phospholipids to assemble into distinct layers to minimize tail contact with water and maximize head contact with water.

Which molecule is less soluble in water–a fat or a phospholipid? Why?

A fat molecule is less soluble in water because it has three non-polar fatty acids and no polar or charged head like a phospholipid has.

The replacement of one of the fatty acids with a polar chemical group makes phospholipids more soluble in water than fats.

Which of these images shows the correct orientation of phospholipids in a biological membrane?
Biological membranes are made of phospholipids that have assembled with the polar heads facing out to interact with the water, and the non-polar tails pushed together in the interior of the membrane.
Arginine
basic
Asparagine
polar
Glutamine
polar
Alanine
nonpolar
Phenylalanine
nonpolar
Serine
polar
Lysine
basic
Proline
nonpolar
Methionine
nonpolar
Valine
nonpolar
Tyrosine
polar
Threonine
polar
Tryptophan
nonpolar
Glutamic Acid
acidic
_________ structure describes the alpha-helices and beta-sheets that are formed by hydrogen bonding between backbone atoms located near each other in the polypeptide chain.
Secondary
_________ structure is the result of two or more protein subunits assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex.
Quaternary
_______ structure is achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side-chain R groups of amino acids.
Tertiary
______ structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Primary
Sort the images according to the level of structure in the proteins shown.
Sort the items into the appropriate bin.
The tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins—how they fold into their overall three-dimensional shapes, and how different protein subunits come together to interact—both ultimately depend on the primary structure, the sequence of amino acids in the proteins. A different sequence of amino acids will lead to different secondary structures and a different shape of the overall protein.

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