ANS and Endocrine System Chapter 15-17 Answers

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parasympathetic
parasympathetic
Which division of the autonomic nervous system is illustrated by the purple neurons?
sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
Which type of nerve fibers make up the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

sympathetic trunk and collateral ganglia

(Sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse in the sympathetic trunk ganglia or in the collateral ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and inferior hypogastric ganglia).

Where do sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse?
ventral horn and spinal cord
Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?
cervical
Which region of the spinal cord does NOT contain any autonomic neurons?
localized effects on specific organs and short postganglionic axons near organ of innervation
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is characterized by __________.
C. Motor units in the ANS include a chain of two motor neurons.

Which of these statements accurately describes how the general visceral motor system of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs from the general somatic motor system?

A. The dorsal root ganglia contain cell bodies of motor neurons.
B. ANS motor axons are more thickly myelinated than somatic motor axons.
C. Motor units in the ANS include a chain of two motor neurons.
D. The conduction of impulses through the ANS is quicker than conduction through the somatic motor system.

D. They innervate many of the same visceral organs

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS ?

A. Both divisions include some cranial nerves to transmit impulses to organs in the head and neck.
B. They innervate different organs, but induce similar effects.
C. Both divisions provide rapid systemic responses to dangerous stimuli.
D. They innervate many of the same visceral organs.
E. Both divisions induce vasodilation of coronary blood vessels.

motor / heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure
The ANS is the system of __________ neurons that regulates such functions as __________.
acetylcholine
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands and peripheral blood vessels secrete _________.
autonomic nervous system
The general visceral motor division of the peripheral nervous system describes the _________________.
post-ganglionic neuron
Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies outside the CNS.
pre-ganglionic neuron
Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies within the CNS.
sympathetic
Division that is dominant during exercise, excitement, or emergencies.
A. skeletal muscle

Which of these is not innervated by the ANS?

A. skeletal muscle
B. cardiac muscle
C. smooth muscle
D. glands

general visceral motor system.
Another name for the ANS is the _____________.
B. production of goose bumps

Which of these descriptions is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

A. contraction of the bladder wall in urination
B. production of goose bumps
C. increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D. constriction of the pupils

postganglionic sympathetic
The trunk ganglia contain what kind of cell bodies?
lateral gray horns of the spinal cord
Cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the _____________.
sympathetic
Which autonomic division increases heart rate?
true

True or false?

Preganglionic fibers are myelinated, whereas postganglionic fibers are unmyelinated.

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Vagus Nerve (CN X)
Vagus Nerve (CN X)
Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?
D. sweat glands, arrestor pili muscles, and adipose tissue

Which of these organs/tissues are NOT innervated by parasympathetic fibers, or do not exhibit parasympathetic effects?

A. adrenal medullae, kidney, and gallbladder
B. blood coagulation, mental activity, and vagina
C. the eye (ciliary muscles), cellular metabolism, and heart
D. sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, and adipose tissue

sympathetic division
Division of the ANS responsible for the fight-or-flight response describes the ___________.
sympathetic division
Division of the ANS most active during vigorous exercise describes the __________.
parasympathetic division
Division of the ANS most active when the body is at rest describes the _______________.
parasympathetic division
This division can also be called the craniosacral division.
parasympathetic division
Division that is dominant during rest, digestion, and excretion.
parasympathetic division
Which division of the autonomic nervous system has preganglionic fibers within the facial nerve?
C. salivary glands

All of the following have only sympathetic innervation except the____________.

A. sweat glands.
B. blood vessels.
C. salivary glands.
D. arrector pili.

C. vagus

Which of the following cranial nerves does not supply parasympathetic fibers to the head?

A. facial
B. oculomotor
C. vagus
D. glossopharyngeal

peripheral ganglia near the organs, and short postganglionic fibers.
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by_______________________.
brain stem and the sacral region of the cord.
The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the___________.
A. accessory

Cranial parasympathetic outflow is contained in all of the following cranial nerves except the

A. accessory.
B. facial.
C. vagus.
D. glossopharyngeal.

parasympathetic
In which autonomic division do nerve cell bodies lie closest to the organs being innervated?
trigeminal nerve.
Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers of the head travel within the_____________.
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine.
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the________________.
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Over 90% of all preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are in cranial nerve
constriction
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation of respiratory bronchioles in the lungs?
false

true or false?

Parasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure.

false

true or false?

Fibers from the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord contribute to the sympathetic division.

true

true of false?

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are relatively long compared to those of the parasympathetic division.

true

true or false?

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions can be distinguished by the amount of branching of the post-ganglionic fibers.

sympathetic trunk
sympathetic trunk
which structure is highlighted?
sympathetic trunk ganglia
sympathetic trunk ganglia
which structure is highlighted?
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C. Preganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of acetycholine

Which statement is true concerning the innervation of adrenal medulla?

A. After synapsing in the celiac ganglion, postganglionic sympathetic fibers stimulate the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
B. Postganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of acetylcholine.
C. Preganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
D. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in the body wall of the adrenal medulla. Postganglionic neurons secrete into the bloodstream to initiate the “rest and digest” response.

pathway 2 (Preganglionic fibers travel to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic fibers travel with blood vessels, and innervate structures of the head.)

pathway 2

(Preganglionic fibers travel to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic fibers travel with blood vessels, and innervate structures of the head.)

Sympathetic innervation to the head follows which pathway?
D. dry mouth, due to sympathetic inhibition of secretions from the salivary glands

If you were very nervous about speaking in front of a group of people, which of the following would be likely to develop?

A. Parasympathetic stimulation of the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream
B. sympathetic dilation of most blood vessels, and a decrease in blood pressure
C. sympathetic stimulation of constrictor muscles in the eyes to constrict pupils
D. dry mouth, due to sympathetic inhibition of secretions from the salivary glands
E. parasympathetic contraction of the smooth muscles of the bladder wall, promoting voiding

They are the postganglionic sympathetic axons that direct impulses to intended peripheral organs.
What is the role of the gray rami communicantes?
C. arrestor pili muscles and sweat glands

The sympathetic pathways to the extremities, direct impulses to which of these structures/tissues?

A. peripheral blood vessels and salivary glands
B. skeletal muscles of the arms and legs
C. arrector pili muscles and sweat glands
D. the heart and lungs

rami communicantes
Short nerve branches that connect the ventral rami of spinal nerves to the sympathetic ganglia.
sympathetic trunk
Ganglia of this structure are connected to the ventral rami of spinal nerves through the rami communicantes.
sympathetic
Which division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the sweat glands in skin?
ventral rami
The gray and white rami communicantes attach to the_________.
preganglionic sympathetic neurons
What stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete its excitatory neurohormones?
D. They contain all the preganglionic fibers traveling to the sympathetic chain.

Which of these statements concerning gray rami communicantes is incorrect?

A. Their fibers are unmyelinated.
B. They are associated with sympathetic trunk ganglia.
C. They carry postganglionic fibers to peripheral structures.
D. They contain all the preganglionic fibers traveling to the sympathetic chain.

lateral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the____________.
ventral root to white ramus communicans to sympathetic trunk ganglion
Identify the pathway that correctly traces the movement of preganglionic sympathetic fibers.
sympathetic stimulation.
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of____________.
in the armpit
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
false

true or false?

Sympathetic trunk ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons and are located in the dorsal root of the spinal cord.

false

true or false?

Because the fibers of the sympathetic division arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, they cannot innervate structures of the head or pelvis.

false

true or false?

Parasympathetic fibers innervate the sweat glands, arrector pili, and smooth muscles of the arteries.

umbilical region / superior right thoracic region and superior right quadrant
umbilical region / superior right thoracic region and superior right quadrant
hypothalamus.
Control of temperature, of autonomic nervous reflexes, of hunger, and of sleep are functions associated with the_______________.
hypothalamus
The part of the brain that exerts more control over autonomic functioning than any other part is the______________.
hypothalamus
The overall integrating center for the ANS.
decreased heart rate
Stimulation of the vagus nerve in the baroreceptor reflex causes __________.
entirely within the wall of the digestive tube
The enteric nervous system functions __________.
MUST KNOW
MUST KNOW
MUST KNOW
MUST KNOW
Voluntary sympathetic activation occurs when the cerebral cortex acts on the amygdala when one remembers a scary event.
What influence does the cerebral cortex have on the ANS?
hypothalamus (The hypothalamus controls the activities of the autonomic nervous system directly and links to the brain stem nuclei of the reticular formation.)

hypothalamus

(The hypothalamus controls the activities of the autonomic nervous system directly and links to the brain stem nuclei of the reticular formation.)

Which region of the central nervous system integrates the activities of the autonomic nervous system?
false

true or false?

An endocrine cell that secretes its hormone in response to the presence of another hormone is said to be controlled by humoral stimuli.

true
true or false?
All endocrine glands secrete their hormones into the bloodstream.
hormonal
The major stimulus for the release of thyroid hormone is______________.
well vascularized.
Compared to most other organs in the body, endocrine organs are_________.
E
E
Secretes hormones that control blood sugar levels.
A
A
Identify the letter that indicates a “master gland” that secretes at least nine hormones.
B
B
Identify the letter that indicates a gland that secretes hormone that controls metabolic rate.
posterior lobe of the pituitary and adrenal medullae
Which of the purely endocrine organs contain modified neurons that produce and secrete neurohormones?
sella turcica of the sphenoid
sella turcica of the sphenoid
Identify the bony structure where the pituitary gland is located.
must know!!
must know!!
immediately inferior to the larynx.
The thyroid gland is located_______.
pars distalis.
Cells that manufacture and secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone are located in the______________.
zona glomerulosa.
Cells that manufacture and secrete aldosterone are located in the________________.
B. oxytocin

Which of the following hormones is secreted by neurons?

A. insulin
B. oxytocin
C. thyroid hormone
D. growth hormone

hypothalamus.
The secretion of hormones by the anterior lobe of the pituitary is controlled by the__________.
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The adrenal medulla secretes___________.
A. ADH

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary?

A. ADH
B. adrenaline
C. LH
D. glucagon

pineal gland
Gland of the posterior diencephalon.
C
C
Identify the letter that indicates a gland that regulates circadian rhythms.
A
A
Identify the letter that indicates the hypophysis, which consists of an anterior and posterior lobe.
medulla
medulla
Which portion of the adrenal gland secretes hormones in response to “fight-or-flight” situations?
calcium
calcium
Blood levels of which substance are regulated by secretion from the illustrated glands?
TSH secreted by the anterior pituitary (The thyroid gland is under hormonal control; thyroid-stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone.)

TSH secreted by the anterior pituitary

(The thyroid gland is under hormonal control; thyroid-stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone.)

What stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland?
kidney (ADH promotes water resorption by the kidneys and increases blood volume and blood pressure.)

kidney

(ADH promotes water resorption by the kidneys and increases blood volume and blood pressure.)

Which organ is influenced by antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
must know
must know
must know
must know
increases the excretion of sodium in the urine.
The hormone produced by the heart______.
kidney
Erythropoietin is produced in the_______.
the epidermis
Vitamin D is synthesized and secreted by_______.
B. testosterone

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the placenta?

A. estrogens
B. testosterone
C. hCG
D. progesterone

C. atrial natriuretic hormone

Which of the following hormones is secreted by cardiac muscle cells?

A. ADH
B. FSH
C. atrial natriuretic hormone
D. epinephrine

true

true or false?

the heart contains endocrine cells that secrete atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

false

true or false?

In diabetes mellitus, the posterior lobe of the pituitary does not produce sufficient antidiuretic hormone.

posterior pituitary gland.
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by trauma to the________
may often control their disease by diet and exercise
Individuals with type 2 diabetes______.
tuber cinereum
tuber cinereum
which structure is highlighted?
pituitary gland
pituitary gland
which gland is highlighted?
pineal gland
pineal gland
which structure is highlighted?
pancreas
pancreas
which structure is highlighted?
kidney
kidney
which structure is highlighted?
adrenal gland
adrenal gland
which structure is highlighted?
thymus
thymus
Which gland is highlighted?
pituitary gland
pituitary gland
Which structure is highlighted?
pineal gland
pineal gland
Which structure is highlighted?
parathyroid glands
parathyroid glands
Which structure is highlighted?
pancreas
pancreas
Which structure is highlighted?
erythropoietin
erythropoietin
Which hormone released by this organ stimulates red blood cell synthesis?
kidney
kidney
which structure is highlighted?
hypothalamus
hypothalamus
which structure is highlighted?
adrenal cortex
adrenal cortex
which structure is highlighted?
Effects caused by stimulation of the parasympathetic division include
erection, contraction of smooth muscle of bladder wall, and increased motility of digestive organs
If you were very nervous about speaking in front of a group of people, which of the following would be likely to develop?
dry mouth, due to sympathetic inhibition of secretions from the salivary glands
Which statement is true concerning the innervation of adrenal medulla?
Preganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?
Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?
ventral horn of spinal cord
The functions of the vagus nerves include
stimulation of glandular secretions from digestive and accessory digestive organs and increased motility of the digestive tract
__________disease is characterized by intermittent attacks of exaggerated sympathetic vasoconstriction of blood vessels of the hands and feet, followed by vasodilation.
raynauds
The ANS is the system of __________ neurons that regulates such functions as __________.
motor / heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure
Which of the following statements best describes the anatomical organization of the somatic and autonomic divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
The somatic nervous system has one neuron from the central nervous system to the target tissue, while the autonomic nervous system is set on a two-neuronal relay.
it uses acetylcholine as its only neurotransmitter
somatic nervous system
it targets skeletal muscle
somatic nervous system
one of its divisions is the sympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
it uses acetylcholine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine as neurotransmitters
autonomic nervous system
it targets cardiac and smooth muscles
autonomic nervous system
Each of the two bins below represents a type of neurotransmitter released from the autonomic nervous system.
Each of the two bins below represents a type of neurotransmitter released from the autonomic nervous system.
cell bodies are located in the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord
sympathetic nervous system
some preganglionic fibers synapse with the adrenal gland
sympathetic nervous system
the heart is a target
both
cell bodies are located in the brainstem and sacral region of the spinal cord
parasympathetic nervous system
postganglionic fibers are short
parasympathetic nervous system
skeletal muscles are targets
neither
comparing somatic motor and autonomic innervation
comparing somatic motor and autonomic innervation
Order the following terms from left to right to correctly represent the flow of information from the sympathetic nervous system to the heart.
Order the following terms from left to right to correctly represent the flow of information from the sympathetic nervous system to the heart.
Which of these statements about sympathetic trunk ganglia is accurate?
The sacral ganglia lie medial to the sacral foramina.
Which division of the autonomic nervous system is illustrated by the purple neurons?

parasympathetic division

leaves the central nervous system on cranial and sacral nerves

Place of the ANS in the structural organization of the nervous system
Place of the ANS in the structural organization of the nervous system
Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS ?
They innervate many of the same visceral organs.
In the pathway leading to the lacrimal and nasal glands, the preganglionic neurons synapse with ganglionic neurons in the__________
pterygopalatine ganglion
Which of these statements accurately describes how the general visceral motor system of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs from the general somatic motor system?
Motor units in the ANS include a chain of two motor neurons.
Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?
CN X (Vagus)
Where do sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse?
sympathetic trunk and collateral ganglia
The CNS structure that is the main integration center of the ANS is the__________.
hypothalamus
Which of these statements regarding the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division is FALSE?
They are the same as the sympathetic trunk ganglia.
Parasympathetic division of the ANS
Parasympathetic division of the ANS
Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS causes__________of bronchioles
dilation
The adrenal medulla is different from the remainder of the sympathetic division because __________.
modified postganglionic neurons in the medulla secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act as blood-borne neurohormones, rather than as neurotransmitters
The medial and anterior regions of the hypothalamus direct__________functions
parasympathetic

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