ANPS20 Lab 5: Lymphatic and Immune Systems Answers

tears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?
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Tear and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?

adaptive defenses
innate internal defenses
innate external defenses

innate external defenses

phagocytic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?

innate internal defenses
innate external defenses
adaptive defenses

innate internal defenses

what cell makes antibodies?

cytotoxic T cells
memory T cells
memory B cells
plasma B cells

Plasma B cells

what is the name of the substance that a B or T cell (lymphocyte) recognizes and bings to?

antigen
pathogen
receptor
antibody

antigen

what type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?

humoral immunity
cell-mediated immunity
antibody mediated immunity

humoral immunity

if a virus attacks a cell, what type of immunity would be activiated?

cell-mediated immunity
antibody-mediated immunity
humoral immunity

cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)

cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?

Macrophages
cytotoxic T cells
B cells

cytotoxic T cells

which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?

lymph nodes and tonsils
slpeen and thymus
appendix and spleen
bone marrow and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

which immune cells are phagocytes?

macrophages and neutrophils
B and T cells
erthrocytes

macrophages and neutrophils

which part of the antibody recognizes and binds to the antigen?

heavy chain
constant region
variable region
light chain

variable region

what is the B cell receptor?

The helper T cell
CD4 and CD8
the antibody
the anitgen

the antibody

what must happen to activate a B cell?

binding of antigen and help from a T cell
binding of antigen to the B cell receptor
antibodies must be produced

binding of antigen and help from a T cell

what happens after B cells are activated?

plasma cells and memory cells are formed
clones of helper T cells are formed
clones of cytotoxic T cells are formed

plasma cells and memory cells are formed

what is the role of plasma cells?

they kill cells that carry antibodies on their surface
they phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
they produce antibodies

they produce antibodies

what type of cell makes it possible to mount a faster and more powerful immune response if an antigen is encountered at a later date?

plasma cells
memory cells
macrophages
cytotoxic T cells

memory cells

What is the most common type of T cell?

CD8 cells
plasma cells
cytotoxic T cells
CD4 cells

CD4 cells

CD4 cells become helper T cells when they are activated

CD8 cells become _____ when they are activated?

cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
CD4 cells
plasma cells

Cytotoxic T cells

that destroy cells in the body that harbor anything foriegn

Activated CD4 cells become____

Helper T cells
plasma cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Macrophages

Helper T cells

Helper T cells help to activate B cells, other T cells, and macrophages, and direct the adaptive immune response

T cells can recognize and respond to only processed fragments of antigens that are displayed on the surface of cells on one of two types of MHC proteins, either class I MHC proteins or class II proteins. What class of MHC proteins do CD8 cells recognize

Class I MHC proteins

naive CD8 and cytotoxic T cells can recognize antigens that are displayed on Class I MHC proteins.

which class of MHC protein do CD4 cells recognize
MHC II

how do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells?

by phagocytosis
through programmed cell death, or apoptosis
with antibodies

through programmed cell death, or apoptosis

how is cell death caused by cytotoxic T cells

perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells
infected cells are tagged with antibodies

perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells

what is the role of the helper T cells?

They help in the activation of NK cells
They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
They help in the activation of only cytotoxic T cells

They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells

Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells are involved in which type of adaptive immunity?

innate external defense
cellular or cell-mediated immunity
innate internal defense
humoral immunity

cellular or cell-mediated immunity

which type of cell is deficient in AIDS?

cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
B cells
CD8 cells

Helper T Cells

Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?

all nucleated cells
antigen-presenting cells

antigen-presenting cells
which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens (antigens that orginate from outside the cell)?
Class II MHC proteins
Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which type of cell?
CD8 cells
what major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 cells
Which major class of lymphocytes become helper T cells?
CD4 cells

excess interstitial fluid is collected by the ____

veins
lymph nodes
blood capillaries
lymphatic capillaries
phagocytes

lymphatic capillaries
a special set of lymphatic vessels called lacteals transports absorbed fats from the small intestine to the blood stream
true
an abnormal buildup of fluid in the tissues due to failure or blockage of the lymphatic vessels is called__________
lymphedema

what is the main function of the lymphatic system?

the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood
the lymphatic system makes blood cells through hematopoiesis
transports blood and lymph throughout the body
produces high fluid pressures

the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream back to the blood

adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely, what is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability?

fibroblasts
minivalves
trabeculae
lacteals

minivalves

which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

increasing pressure of the interstitial space
inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
lymph from the right leg is ulitmately delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

thoracic duct

lymph from the entire body below the diaphram, right and left, enters the venous circulation via the thoracic duct

lymph from what region of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the right side of the thorax

lymph from the left hand must travel through which cluster of lymph nodes?

the cervical, axillar and inguinal nodes
inguinal nodes
cervical nodes
axillary nodes

axillary nodes
which is true about the flow of lymph through a lymph node?
lymph enters the node through the afferent lymph vessels and leaves through the efferent lymph vessels

which type of immune cells are found in the lymph nodes?

only B lymphocytes and plasma cells
macrophages and dendritic cells
B cells, plasma cells, and T cells
All of the listed cell types

all of the listed cell types

The lighter stained areas within the centers of lymphoid follicles are formed by B cells proliferating in response to antigen. These lighter stained regions are called ___________.

tonsils
peyer’s patches
sinuses
germinal centers

germinal centers

All of the following are functions of the spleen Execpt:

is a site for interaction of lymphocytes with their antigens
removes pathogens, aged erythrocytes, and platelets from the blood
stores platelets
filters lymph

filters lymph

where does filtering and processing for RBCs and pathogens in the blood occur?

red pulp of the spleen
white pulp of the spleen
splenic artery
lymph node

red pulp of the spleen

in the spleen, what is the site of immune interactions between antigens and lymphocytes?

white pulp of the spleen
lymph nodes
splenic artery
red pulp of the spleen

white pulp of the spleen

which mucosa -associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is also known as the adenoids?

peyers patches
pharyngeal tonsils
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsils

pharyngeal tonsils

which of the MALT is a blind sac hanging from the first part of the large intestine?

tonsils
appendix
peyer’s patches

appendix
why is a ruptured appendix a medical emergency?
because pathogens are spilled into the sterile peritoneal cavity
What is occuring in the germinal centers?
B cells are activated in response to antigen
which lympoid organ is primaryly active during the early years of life
the thymus (responsible for the maturation of T lymphocytes)
which of these lymphoid organs is part of a collegtion of tissues called the MALT and removes pathogens entering the pharynx?

tonsils

function to protect the throat and surrounding tissues from infection via the mouth and nose

which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?
the spleen
which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus
the thymus is located in the inferior neck and superior thorax profound to the superior sternum (B)

which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the wall of the small intestine has the abililty to launch an immune response when presented with appropriate antigens

peyer’s patch
tonsils
thymus
spleen

peyer’s patch
which of these lymphatic organs is organized with trabeculaee and compartments containing white pulp and red pulp?
the spleen

the filtration of lymph and activation of the immune system are two basic functions of _______

tonsils
peyer’s patch
spleen
lymph nodes

lymph nodes

which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

white pulp
splenic cords
splenic sinusoids
red pulp

white pulp (contains reticular fibers with suspended lymphocytes)
where is the spleen located?
in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphram and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsils. what structures found in most other lymphoid organs are missing from the tonsils that allows for the presence of these crypts?

lymphoid follicles
lymphocytes
capsule
germinal centers

capsule

absence of capsule allows fluids from the throat and mouth to enter crypts and get close to lymphatic tissue- allows for better immune function, but prone to infection

which tonsils is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharnyx and is referred to as the adneoids if its enlarged?

tubual tonsils
pharyngeal tonsils
lingual tonsils
palatine tonsils

pharyngeal tonsils
protein containing fluid within the lymphatic vessels
lymph
stores blood platelets
spleen
recieves lymph from most of the body
thoracic duct
small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
largest lymphatic organ
spleen
isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine
peyer’s patches
Tears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?
innate external defenses (surface barriers) are the first line of defense and include tears, mucus membranes, and the skin.
Phagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?
adaptive defenses
innate internal defenses
innate external defenses
innate internal defenses
What cells make antibodies?
plasma B cells
Immunity
Is the ability to resist infection and disease and can be divided into the innate defenses (nonspecific) and adaptive defenses (specific).
innate defenses
are always prepared and can respond within minutes to protect the body from foreign substances. The innate defenses provide the first and second line of defense
first line of defense
is the external body membranes
second line of defense
is called into action whenever the first line has been penetrated and relies on internal defenses such as chemicals, antimicrobial proteins, cells and processes such as inflammation and fever
adaptive defenses
provide the body’s third line of defense and is highly specific, but takes time to develop.
B and T lymphocytes(CELLS)
are the effector cells of the adaptive immune response
What is the name of the substance that a B or T cell (lymphocyte) recognizes and binds to?
antigen
What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?
humoral immunity
humoral immunity
immunity involves antibodies that can be transferred from one person to another. Antibodies float freely in body fluids (called humors). These fluids can be transferred from one person to another, transferring immunity from one person to another. The branch of adaptive immunity that can be transferred via body fluids is called humoral immunity and involves B cells and the antibodies they ultimately produce (antibodies are produced by plasma cells which are differentiated from B cells). Humoral immunity is directed against extracellular pathogens.
If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?
If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?
cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
humoral immunity
antibody-mediated immunity
cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
cell-mediated immunity involves
an intracellular pathogen such as a virus. Cellular or cell-mediated immunity involves cells, the T cells, which directly attack other cells. The cells attacked by these T cells are cells of our own body that need to be destroyed. T cells will attack: cells that have become cancerous, cells invaded by a virus, or cells transplanted from another individual.
Cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?
Cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?
macrophages
B cells
Cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cells attack cancer cells, since they are part of cell-mediated immunity.
Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?
Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?
appendix and spleen
spleen and thymus
lymph nodes and tonsils
bone marrow and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

Yes, the B lymphocytes are named B cells because they mature in the Bone marrow and the T lymphocytes are called T cells because they mature in the Thymus. This is also where they become immunocompetent (or as Dr. Cornbrooks says, where they become “educated”).

Which immune cells are phagocytes?

Macrophages and neutrophils are two of the phagocytes that operate in the immune system.

Recall that macrophages are monocytes that differentiated to become macrophages in the tissue. Eosinophils are also phagocytes, even though they are not mentioned in this presentation. Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens, dead cells and debris.

What is the B cell receptor?
B cell receptors are antibodies. B cells use antibodies to recognize a specific antigen
immune system has two major anatomical parts
Specialized immune cells, many of which are leukocytes and their close relatives.
Lymphoid organs and tissues including the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus.
Lymphoid organs and tissues are sites where….
lymphocytes are produced, reside and come into contact with pathogens.

Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?

appendix and spleen
spleen and thymus
lymph nodes and tonsils
bone marrow and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

the B lymphocytes are named B cells because they mature in the Bone marrow and the T lymphocytes are called T cells because they mature in the Thymus.

Which immune cells are phagocytes?
macrophages and neutrophils
Which part of the antibody recognizes and binds to the antigen?
Which part of the antibody recognizes and binds to the antigen?
variable region
The variable region of the antibody is formed by a portion of each heavy chain and light chain. The variable region determines which specific antigen an antibody will recognize and bind to.
What is the B cell receptor?
B cell receptors are antibodies. B cells use antibodies to recognize a specific antigen.
What must happen to activate a B cell?
binding of antigen and help from a T cell
What happens after B cells are activated?
plasma cells and memory cells are formed
What is the role of plasma cells?
They produce antibodies
-Plasma cells are the antibody-secreting effector cells of the humoral response
Which type of cell makes it possible to mount a faster and more powerful immune response if an antigen is encountered at a later date?
Memory cells
Which is the most common type of T cell?

CD4 cells

which become helper T cells when they are activated.

CD8 cells become _____________________ when they are activated.
cytotoxic T cells
Activated CD4 cells become ____
Helper T cells
Which class of MHC protein do CD8 cells recognize?
Class I MHC
Which class of MHC protein do CD4 cells recognize?
Class II MHC
How do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells?

through programmed cell death, or apoptosis

Cytotoxic T cells stimulate an infected cell to undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death.

How is cell death caused by the cytotoxic T cells?
perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells
What is the role of helper T cells?

They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells.

Helper T cells activate B cells and T cells, and induce B and T cells to proliferate.

Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells are involved in which type of adaptive immunity?

cellular or cell-mediated immunity

In cell-mediated or cellular immunity the T cells defend the body. In cell-mediated or cellular immunity, the T lymphocytes (T cells) act directly against cellular targets such as virus-infected or parasite-infected tissue cells, cancer cells or foreign cells (as in transplants).

Which type of cell is deficient in AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)?
helper T cells
Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?
antigen-presenting cells
Which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens (antigens that originate from outside the cell)?

class II MHC proteins

class II MHC proteins present antigens that originated from outside the cell (phagocytized extracellular pathogens).

Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types?
CD8 cells
Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 cells
Which major class of lymphocytes become helper T cells?

CD4 cells

when activated, CD4 cells become helper T cells that help activate B cells, other T cells and macrophages, and direct the adaptive immune response.

Excess interstitial fluid is collected by the _______________
lymphatic capillaries
A special set of lymphatic vessels called lacteals transports absorbed fat from the small intestine to the bloodstream.
true or false
TRUE
An abnormal buildup of fluid in the tissues due to failure or blockage of the lymphatic vessels is called
Inflammation
Polycythemia
Melanoma
Lymphedema

Lymphedema

Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood, such as when tumors block the lymphatics or lymphatics are removed during cancer surgery, can result in severe localized edema, which is called lymphedema.

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.
Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. What is the
Minivalves are overlapping endothelial cells that allow fluid into the vessels but will not let fluid out.
arge clusters of lymph nodes occur near the body surface in many areas of the body, including the….
inguinal, axillary and cervical regions as seen in this figure.
Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?
thoracic duct
Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and right side of the thorax
Lymph from the left hand must travel through which cluster of lymph nodes?
axillary nodes
Lymph nodes have two basic protective functions:
Cleansing the lymph. As lymph is transported back to the blood stream, the lymph nodes act as lymph “filters”. Macrophages in the nodes remove and destroy microorganisms and other debris that enter the lymph from the loose connective tissues, preventing them from being delivered to the blood and spreading to other parts of the body.
Immune system activation. Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs are strategically located sites where lymphocytes encounter antigens and are activated to mount an attack against them.

What is TRUE about the flow of lymph through a lymph node?

Lymph flows from the medulla to the cortex of the lymph node and out through the afferent lymph vessels.
Lymph enters the node through the afferent lymph vessels and leaves through the efferent lymph vessels.
Lymph enters the node through the efferent lymph vessels and leaves through the afferent lymph vessels.

Lymph enters the node through the afferent lymph vessels and leaves through the efferent lymph vessels.
Which types of immune cells are found in lymph nodes?
macrophages and dendritic cells
B cells, plasma cells and T cells
only B lymphocytes and plasma cells
The lighter stained areas within the centers of the lymphoid follicles are formed by B cells proliferating in response to antigen. These lighter stained regions are called ____________________________.

germinal centers

The germinal centers are formed by B cells proliferating in response to antigen.

he spleen consists of two components:
white pulp and red pulp
White pulp is where
immune functions take place, so it is composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers. The white pulp clusters or forms “cuffs” around central arteries (small branches of the splenic artery). These clusters of white pulp look like islands in a sea of red pulp.
Red pulp is where
worn-out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens are destroyed, so it contains huge numbers of erythrocytes and the macrophages that engulf them. It is essentially all splenic tissue that is not white pulp. It consists of splenic cords, regions of reticular connective tissue, that separate the blood filled splenic sinusoids (venous sinuses).
Where does filtering and processing of red blood cells and pathogens in the blood occur?
red pulp of the spleen
In the spleen, what is the site of immune interactions between antigens and lymphocytes?
white pulp of the spleen
MALT

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues

are a set of distributed lymphoid tissues strategically located in mucous membranes throughout the body. MALT helps protect us from the never-ending onslaught of pathogens that seek to enter our bodies.

the tonsils, Peyer’s patches and the appendix

Which mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is also known as “the adenoids”?
pharyngeal tonsils
Why is a ruptured appendix a medical emergency?
Because pathogens are spilled into the sterile peritoneal cavity.
You have learned that lymphatic tissues contain lymphoid follicles that often contain germinal centers. What is occurring in the germinal centers?
B cells are activated in response to antigen
Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life?
The thymus is responsible for the maturation of T lymphocytes, and while it is large in youth, it tends to be reduced in size as the body ages.
Which of these lymphoid organs is part of a collection of tissues called the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and removes pathogens entering the pharynx (throat)?
tonsils
Which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the wall of the small intestine has the ability to launch an immune response when presented with appropriate antigens?
Peyer’s patches
Which of these lymphatic organs is organized with trabeculae and compartments containing white pulp and red pulp?
The spleen is a large lymphoid organ containing areas of lymphocytes on reticular fibers (white pulp) and areas of reticular connective tissue cords and blood-filled sinuses (red pulp).
Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?
white pulp
Where is the spleen located?
in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells are involved in which type of adaptive immunity?
Tears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?

innate external defenses

-innate external defenses (surface barriers) are the first line of defense and include tears, mucus membranes, and the skin.

Phagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?

innate internal defenses

-the macrophage recognizes many molecules found on pathogens that are not present on normal body cells.

What cells make antibodies?
the plasma B cells make antibodies in response to specific antigens.
What is the name of the unique area (specific region) that a lymphocyte recognizes and binds to?
also called an epitope, the antigenic determinant is the specific part of an antigen that the antibody or lymphocyte antigenic determinant receptor binds to.
Part E
What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?
humoral immunity involves antibodies that can be transferred from one person to another.
If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?
cell-mediated immunity involves an intracellular pathogen such as a virus.
Cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?
cytotoxic T cells attack cancer cells, since they are part of cell-mediated immunity.
What is the role of helper T cells in the adaptive immune response?
Helper T cells activate B cells that are displaying antigen, causing clonal expansion. Helper T cells also activate cytotoxic T cells, which will search for and destroy infected host cells.
What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell?
An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells.
The student who caught the cold caused by this specific Rhinovirus was exposed to the exact same Rhinovirus 18 months later. What component of the immune system will protect her from getting the same cold again?
Memory cells to that specific virus are stored in the lymph nodes for many years. When the student comes into contact with this specific Rhinovirus, these memory cells quickly divide and differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The antibodies will prevent the virus from reaching an infectious titer (number that causes infection).
Correctly order the steps involved cellular immunity:

1. The Tc interacts with epitope presented by MHC-I on the dendritic cell

2. The helper T cell activates the Tc cell

3. The Tc recognizes the infected host cell

4. The Tc secretes perforin and granzyme, causing apoptosis

Which of the following is NOT a step used by cytotoxic T cells to kill infected host cells?
Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein
Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur:
1. Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus
2. Endosome fuses with lysozome
3. Digestion of the Rhinovirus
4. Epitopes are attached to MHC-II
5. MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell
Which pair of molecules do NOT directly interact with one another?

BCR and TCR

-Both of these molecules interact with epitopes. BCRs interact with epitopes on the whole pathogen. TRCs interact with processed epitopes when presented on MHC-II.

Which of the following is NOT a step that ultimately leads to antibody production?
Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells
A person who has AIDS contracts rare and often life-threatening infections because their helper T cell count is so low. Which of the following components of the immune response still respond to antigen despite the low helper T cell count?

Clonal selection of B cells

-B cells can still bind to antigen, which is the process of clonal selection. However, without a helper T cell, clonal expansion and antibody production will not occur.

Which of the following statements is true?
Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.
Which of the following is not an antigen-presenting cells (APC)?
T cells do not act as APCs. Quite the opposite, APCs present antigens to T cells.
Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?

Opsonization

-Complement proteins stimulate inflammation, serve as opsonins to aid in the phagocytosis of targeted antigens, and facilitate cytolysis.

Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?
antigen-presenting cells
Which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens?
class II MHC proteins
Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?
class I MHC proteins are recognized by CD8 cells
Which of the following types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?
all nucleated body cells bring pieces of endogenous proteins to the surface to display on the MHC protein.
Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 cells become cytotoxic T cells.
Which of the following activate CD8 cells?
T cells bearing CD8 receptors are activated by cells presenting endogenous antigens on class I MHC proteins.
Activated CD8 T cells become __________.
Activated CD8 T cells become cytotoxic T cells.
Membrane attack complex (MAC) kills by ________.
disrupting the selective permeability of a bacteria’s plasma membrane
All of the following are true of the classical pathway of complement activation except one. Select the one answer that does NOT describe the classical pathway of complement activation.
It activates T helper cells by presenting antigen to them.
Which antimicrobial protein triggers inflammation?
The complement cascade activates inflammation to destroy foreign substances in the body.
What is/are the specific target(s) of interferons?
What is/are the specific target(s) of interferons?

the membrane receptors on healthy cells

-Interferon binds to membrane receptors in healthy cells and triggers a response inside the cell that leads to the production of chemicals that interfere with virus manufacture.

Natural killer (NK) cells ________.
can kill cancer cells before the adaptive immune system is activated
With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?
Opsonins are needed to provide a gripping point on some cells that have capsules or other defenses against adherence by phagocytes.
Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is/are released by mast cells?
Histamine is one of the products produced by mast cells to moderate inflammation. It is also released by basophils, which are similar to mast cells but reside in the blood.
What characterizes flattening of neutrophils to squeeze between the endothelial cells of the capillary walls?

diapedesis

-The flattening of neutrophils and subsequent movement through the vessel wall is in response to cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?
Interferon is a small protein that can stimulate nearby healthy cells to defend themselves against viral infection.
Plasma cells ________.
have a great deal of rough endoplasmic reticulum reflecting the fact that they secrete a tremendous amount of protein (antibody)
Which lymphocytes act as the bridge between the cellular and humoral responses?
Helper T cells are lymphocytes that organize the cellular and humoral immune response branches of the immune system.
Cytotoxic T cells ________.
can directly attack and kill other cells of the body
Submit
T helper cells ________.
function in the adaptive immune system activation
A class I MHC protein presents an antigen. What type of cell is likely presenting and to what type of cell would it be presented?
Any nucleated cell would present antigens to a CD8 cell.
Which of the following describes a hapten?

A hapten is a foreign molecule that becomes immunogenic when combined with body proteins.

-Haptens trigger adaptive defenses when combined with body proteins, making them appear foreign. Examples of haptens can be found in poison ivy, animal dander, and certain drugs.

What roles do memory B cells play when a patient is re-exposed to an antigen?
Memory B cells trigger a secondary immune response, which is faster, more prolonged, and more effective than the first immune response.
Which specific type of cell produces antibodies?
When activated by the presence of antigens, B lymphocytes proliferate into plasma cells. Plasma cells generate antigen-specific antibodies.
How do cytotoxic cells directly attack pathogens?
They bind to the pathogen and secrete chemicals that induce apoptosis.
Which is a part of the innate immune defenses?
The skin is the first innate barrier that works to prevent entry of any pathogens into the body.
Which of the following is NOT a property of mucous membranes?

Mucus contains macrophages that attack invading pathogens.

-Mucus itself does not typically contain macrophages.

How is the adaptive third line of defense able to target specific pathogens?
The third line of defense responds to antigens on the pathogen.
Which of the following best describes humoral immunity?
Humoral immunity refers to the presence of specific antibodies in the body fluids.
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe a difference between the innate and adaptive defenses of the body?
The innate defenses of the body apply strictly to external pathogens, while adaptive defenses apply strictly to internal pathogens.
How do natural killer cells destroy invading pathogens?
Natural killer cells bind to target cells and secrete perforins and granzymes that degrade the target cell membrane. They also bind to membrane receptors that induce apoptosis.
Which of the following is NOT a typical sign of inflammation?
Bruising is a sign of internal hemorrhaging and injury, but bruising is not a typical part of the inflammatory response.
What is the role of complement in the innate immune response?
Activated complement proteins help amplify the immune response and lyse bacterial cells. These proteins also enhance the adaptive defenses.

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