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Which of the following statements about aldosterone is NOT correct?
A. Aldosterone increases the number of passive sodium channels in the luminal membrane of the distal tubule and collecting duct, thus aiding sodium reabsorption.
B. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal cortex.
C. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by increasing the number of Na+-K+ ATPase pumps in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule.
D. Aldosterone is stimulated by decreased plasma sodium levels and increased plasma potassium levels.
Which of the following statements about ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is correct?
A. ADH would increase urine volume.
B. ADH is synthesized by the adrenal gland and works in the kidney.
C. ADH inserts water channels into the luminal membrane of the proximal tubules.
D. ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland.
What is the osmolarity of the filtrate at the end of the proximal tubule?
A. hypertonic – 600 mOsm
B. hypotonic – 100 mOsm
C. isotonic – 300 mOsm
D. hypertonic – 1200 mOsm
In overhydration, what would be the levels of ADH (high, normal, or low) and what would be the osmolarity of the urine?
A. ADH – high; 100 mOsm (urine)
B. ADH – low; 600 mOsm (urine)
C. ADH – low; 100 mOsm (urine)
D. ADH – high; 600 mOsm (urine)
In severe dehydration or blood loss, what would be the levels of ADH and what would be the urine flow rate?
A. ADH – high; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)
B. ADH – low; high urine flow rate (16 ml/min)
C. ADH – high; high urine flow rate (16 ml/min)
D. ADH – low; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
A. a decrease in the osmolarity of the interstitium
B. an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
C. active transport of water
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
A. sodium-glucose cotransporter
B. the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the luminal membrane
C. the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane
D. passive sodium channels
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
A. glucose carrier transporter
B. Na+-glucose cotransporter
C. potassium ion channel
D. Na+-H+ countertransport
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
A. number of transport carriers in the basolateral membrane
number of sodium-potassium B. ATPase pumps in the basolateral membrane
C. number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
A. water and small solutes
B. nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea
C. ions, such as sodium and potassium
D. blood cells and large particles
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
A. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
B. colloid osmotic pressure of blood
Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
A. net filtration would increase
B. net filtration would decrease
C. net filtration would not be altered
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
A. 25 mm Hg
B. 60 mm Hg
C. 50 mm Hg
D. 35 mm Hg
aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells.
the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the neurohypophysis.
a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
an increase in facultative water reabsorption.
less secretion of aldosterone.
increased urinary loss of sodium.
decreased sodium reabsorption.
reduction of blood pressure.
All of the answers are correct.